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Criminal investigations into Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, the Department of Labor and more

truthPlease share this ongoing investigation which will re-open the case against the many criminal acts committed by multiple government agencies. Numerous others will be coming forth with similar incidents handled improperly by these same agencies. The cover-up will no longer be tolerated.

Jeff Walburn, Chick Lawson, Dr. David Manuta and Paul Brogdon share over 3 hours of criminal investigations into the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, the Department of Labor, NIOSH, USEC, OSHA, CDC, NRC, EEIOC and numerous other government agencies contributing to an ongoing cover-up at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, OH (Nuclear Enrichment).

Records were destroyed and falsified, perjury, racketeering and many other criminal acts have been recorded with the documents to back them up.

Those who have not already lost their lives are either suffering without compensation or have just given up on the system that has infected their bodies and 4 generations to follow. The nuclear radiation the workers were exposed to and took home to their families was not only hidden from their knowledge, but covered up for billions of dollars by greedy corporations and government officials.

Direct link to article!Nuclear-Whistleblowers-Spill-Documented-Proof-of-Criminal-Acts-by-Multiple-Government-Agencies/c7j3/566f73980cf275ddd6e548a1

Direct link to interview


January 28, 2016 Posted by | secrets,lies and civil liberties, USA | 1 Comment

A major economic drain – the renovation of Darlington nuclear station

scrutiny-on-costsflag-canadaFormer OPG scientist calls nuclear reactors “major” economic drain, says renovation will ‘continue the bleeding’ TORONTO — The proposed $12.8-billion refurbishment of four nuclear reactors at the Darlington generating station is an ill-advised make-work project that will end up soaking taxpayers, a retired nuclear scientist says.

In a letter to Ontario’s energy minister, obtained by The Canadian Press, Frank Greening warns of the formidable technical hazards he says will undermine rosy projections for the project.

“I am quite mystified that you would consider the refurbishment of Darlington to be some sort of solution to Ontario’s economic woes, when in fact the premature failures of (nuclear reactors) are a major cause of Ontario’s economic problems,” writes Greening, a frequent critic of the industry.

“Spending billions of dollars trying to patch up Darlington’s four dilapidated reactors will simply continue the bleeding.”

Earlier this month, the province’s publicly owned generating giant, Ontario Power Generation, announced plans to start refurbishing Darlington — situated east of Toronto on Lake Ontario — this fall. The project aims to extend the life of the CANDU reactors, scheduled for permanent shutdown in 2020, by 30 years……

Greening argues the units are in need of rebuilding prematurely because their pressure tubes and feeder pipes will soon fail fitness tests. He also warns the reactors’ massive steam generators, which are not part of the proposed project, have had a less than stellar track record and will more than likely need replacement.

“Replacing these steam generators is fraught with very serious problems, both technical and economic, that could prevent the continued operation of Darlington beyond 2030,” said Greening, a senior scientist with OPG until he retired in 2000.

The decision to proceed with the refurbishment of Darlington could prove to be a disastrous mistake if it is discovered that steam generator replacement is in fact needed in the next 10 to 15 years.”

Environmental groups also argue such projects always run massively over budget and have cost taxpayers untold billions in the past and refurbishment is simply not worth the potential radiation risk to public safety.

The Ontario cabinet has so far given the green light to refurbish one of Darlington’s reactors. OPG would need separate approvals for each of the other three units. …….

Greening, however, argues the project is an attempt to put a “dying industry on life support” at the taxpayer’s expense.

“The inconvenient truth is that, after less than 25 years of operation, Darlington NGS is a mess,” he said.

“Its feeder pipes are falling apart and its pressure tubes are ready to crack. Darlington is another failed CANDU station desperately in need of a fix.”

The performance of four other refurbished CANDUs in Ontario, he argues, has fallen well short of what a new reactor typically delivers.

“This reveals the uncomfortable truth: A refurbished CANDU reactor is no substitute for a new one.”

January 28, 2016 Posted by | general | 1 Comment

Experts concerned in debate on Wisconsin lifting moratorium on new nuclear stations

Energy Experts Are Split On Whether Wisconsin Should Lift Ban On New Nuclear Power Plants Earlier This Month, Assembly Passed A Bill That Would Make It Easier To Bring Nuclear Facilities To State WPR, By Scottie Lee Meyers Wednesday, January 27, 2016 Energy experts are taking different sides on whether Wisconsin should pass new legislation that would allow for the construction of new nuclear power plants.

Earlier this month, the state Assembly passed a measure that would effectively lift Wisconsin’s ban on new nuclear power plants by eliminating two essential clauses. The clauses stipulate that nuclear power would be proven to be a cheaper source of energy to residents and requires a federal repository site for spent nuclear waste. ……..

energy experts like Al Gedicks, of the Wisconsin Resources Protection Council, said they would rather see the state invest in renewable energy systems. While Gedicks said he agrees that nuclear energy is better than coal, natural gas and oil in terms of overall greenhouse gas emissions, he worries that nuclear plants take years to construct and get operating — years we can’t afford to spend when faced with such devastating consequences of climate change. Moreover, he said he fears extreme weather incidents could disrupt radioactive waste stored at nuclear power plants.

Gedicks also believes the bill would open the door to Wisconsin itself becoming a federal repository site.

“If you lift the restriction on no nuclear power plants without a waste disposal site, you are setting up the state of Wisconsin to become if not the first, then certainly the second nuclear waste repository,” he said.

Wisconsin already was targeted by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential repository site to compliment Yucca Mountain back in the 1980s, according to Gedick. But massive opposition, including from four tribal nations, eventually led for the federal agency to look elsewhere. Soon after, Wisconsin implemented the moratorium.

Gedick said Wisconsin could remain an attractive location for a waste dump site because of granite rock formations in the northern part of the state.

“Wisconsin was high on the list in the 1980s and it is still high on the list now,” Gedlick said. “We  are essentially going into this blindfolded because we haven’t had a discussion on whether this is what the citizens of Wisconsin want if they lift that nuclear power moratorium.”……

January 28, 2016 Posted by | politics, USA | Leave a comment

Solar power an economic winner for Chile

Green Energy Boom Helps Chile Contain Surging Power Prices [excellent graphs] ,Bloomberg Business,  Philip Sanders Vanessa Dezem  January 28, 2016

Chile leads Latin America in installation of solar power
Success achieved without the help of government incentives


Chile’s solar industry is proving a win win. Not only has it cut emissions of the global warming gas carbon dioxide, but it has also helped slash some of the highest electricity costs in Latin America. Those benefits have come at no expense to the government, which refused to offer any of the subsidies that drained resources in countries such as Spain and Japan. Looking ahead, the industry could even turn into a major export earner.

At an auction of electricity supply contracts in October, three solar parks offered distributors energy at $65 to $68 per megawatt-hour, while coal power was offered at $85 megawatt-hour, according to a report by Deutsche Bank. Two wind farms bid at $79 megawatt-hour. Unsurprisingly, the contracts went to renewable energy suppliers.

Just seven years earlier it was a very different story. ……..

In the Shade

Chile’s solar industry is putting the rest of the continent in the shade.

The reason for that turnaround lies in the sun baked northern desert of the Atacama, where some towns have had almost no rain in living memory. It is a natural advantage that Chile will continue to exploit. As of November last year, the Energy Minister had registered solar projects with an additional capacity of 1.3 gigawatts.

 The government is now looking into the expansion of the electricity grid, allowing the power to be exported to neighbors such Argentina, Energy Minister Maximo Pacheco says.

“We feel very proud to be a country that is leading the energetic transition in Latin America and to have reached this renewable boom without fiscal subsidies,” Pacheco told Bloomberg on Dec. 15.

January 28, 2016 Posted by | renewable, SOUTH AMERICA | 1 Comment

Japan starts work on ‘world’s largest’ floating solar farm

solar-floating-panels-JapanJapan begins work on ‘world’s largest’ floating solar farm, Guardian, , 28 Jan 16 
Electronics firm builds floating solar farm on a reservoir due to a scarcity of land for utility-scale solar in Japan. 
The Japanese electronics multinational Kyocera has begun work on what it says will be the world’s biggest floating solar farm.

The power plant is being built on a reservoir in Japan’s Chiba prefecture and is anticipated to supply enough electricity for nearly 5,000 households when it is completed in early 2018.

Space-starved Japan has already seen several floating solar farms built as part of the country’s drive to exploit more renewable energy in the wake of the 2011 Fukushima disaster……..

In the UK, water company United Utilities started work last year on a floating solar farm on a Greater Manchester reservoir, which will be Europe’s largest once complete. Kyocera said it was turning to water because of a scarcity of land for utility-scale solar in Japan……

Kyocera has already built three floating solar farms, which are much smaller than the new one, which was first announced in October 2014.

January 28, 2016 Posted by | Japan, renewable | 1 Comment

Encinitas Council votes for moving San Onofre spent nuclear fuel

san-onofre-deadfEncinitas supports bill to move spent nuclear fuel .By Jared Whitlock11 .JAN. 28, 2016. 
Federal legislation to relocate spent nuclear fuel from the shuttered San Onofre power plant has the support of the Encinitas City Council.

The Encinitas council on Jan. 27 voted unanimously to approve a resolution backing H.R. 3643, which would let the federal Department of Energy transfer spent nuclear waste at San Onofre and other areas to an interim storage facility.

“It seems critical that we move that waste from the coastline,” Councilman Tony Kranz said, adding the need is clear given the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that damaged the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

The legislation came about because federal law only allows the Department of Energy to move spent fuel to a permanent depository, yet such a facility isn’t on the horizon.  In 2010, the Obama Administration shelved plans for a long-planned permanent storage site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada.

Oceanside Councilman Jerry Kern, who is on the San Onofre Decommissioning Community Engagement Panel, has urged North County cities to support the federal bill. So far, Oceanside and Encinitas have joined the cause
Kern told the Encinitas council on Jan. 27 that if the federal government doesn’t take action soon, the spent nuclear fuel would remain in cask storage and cooling pools at San Onofre for decades.

“This is a once-in-a-generation opportunity for us to act,” Kern said.

Kern during the Encinitas council’s Jan. 13 meeting said the waste poses a threat, given the plant’s proximity to the ocean and so many people.

San Onofre waste has been on the council’s radar for a while. Prior to the federal legislation, Kranz and Councilwoman Lisa Shaffer last spring asked that the council weigh in on whether nuclear fuel should be stored at the plant.

Neither a temporary nor permanent site for spent nuclear fuel has been settled on. However, a company plans to build an interim facility in Texas and there’s another proposal in New Mexico. In Texas, environmental groups have raised concerns over the impact to aquifers. In New Mexico, opponents have said transporting the waste could be dangerous.

The bill has been assigned to a congressional subcommittee, according to Kern. Rep. Congressman Darrell Issa, R-Vista, co-sponsored the legislation.

Faulty steam generators led to the plant’s closure in 2013, heightening worries over the nuclear waste.

In September, the San Diego County Board of Supervisors asked the federal government to remove and relocate the waste. Later that month, H.R. 3643 was introduced.

With no plan in place for moving the spent fuel, the California Coastal Commission in October approved a measure to bury it in concrete bunkers at the San Onofre plant.

January 28, 2016 Posted by | USA, wastes | 3 Comments

Death of Dr. Herbert L. Abrams, long term activist for peace

Dr. Herbert L. Abrams, Who Worked Against Nuclear War, Dies at 95, NYT,  By  JAN. 28, 2016 Dr. Herbert L. Abrams, a radiologist at Stanford and Harvard Universities and a founder of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, which won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985 for its work in publicizing the health consequences of atomic warfare, died on Jan. 20 at his home in Palo Alto, Calif. He was 95.

The death was confirmed by his son, John.

In the late 1970s, Dr. Abrams became interested in the health implications of nuclear policy. “It began to dawn on me that these weapons of annihilation were being considered for use in the settlement of disputes between nations when I had honestly not thought that that was ever in the cards,” he told The Los Angeles Times in 1989.

With a group of American and Soviet doctors, he helped create International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, with the goal of publicizing the health risks of a nuclear exchange and countering theories that physicians might be able to save enough people to continue civilized life. He later called nuclear weapons and nuclear war “the central health issue of the 20th century.”

Dr. Abrams served as founding vice president of the group, which was awarded the Unesco Prize for Peace Education in 1984 and the Nobel Peace Prize a year later. In announcing the award, the Nobel Committee said the group had performed an important service “by spreading authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare.”………

January 28, 2016 Posted by | general | 2 Comments

Entergy to US Coast Guard Notice Form has Waterford Nuclear Safety Zone at Wrong Location

Mining Awareness +

Entergy to US Coast Guard Notice Form has Waterford Nuclear Safety Zone at Wrong River Mile Marker:
U.S. Coast Guard: Refer to Emergency Management Resources Book Offsite Response Agencies Section

We request the establishment of a safety zone in the immediate area of Waterford 3 to control marine traffic, in accordance with your letter of agreement. Waterford 3 is located at mile marker 128.” (Entergy)

Entergy cooling water intake is at 129.4 and 129.8. Entergy Reactor and Discharge is at 129.8. 128.1 is Union Carbide.
Waterford mile marker uS Army Corps
For the lower Mississippi zero is near the mouth and the miles are larger going upriver to Cairo, IL.

Maybe it’s been corrected by now. Maybe not. We found no updates. And nothing ever changes much in that region.

This notification is probably to help protect Mississippi River traffic in the event of a nuclear accident.

Proper location matters for water intake in…

View original post 288 more words

January 28, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Fukushima fishermen to expand operations off crippled nuclear plant

FUKUSHIMA – Fishermen in Fukushima Prefecture said Wednesday they plan to scale down their self-imposed fishing ban in waters off the damaged nuclear power plant due mainly to a substantial decline in radioactive cesium levels.
The Fukushima Prefectural Federation of Fisheries Cooperative Associations is considering narrowing the area subject to the ban to a 10-kilometer radius from the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant from the current 20-kilometer radius.
The move comes as plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. last autumn completed the construction of a shielding wall to prevent leaks of contaminated groundwater into the sea. Since the completion, radiation levels in sea waters at the plant’s port have been declining.
In addition, prefectural research shows the radioactive cesium levels of marine products caught in coastal areas have dropped substantially.
The proportion of marine products with cesium levels exceeding the state standards of 100 becquerels per kilogram fell to less than 0.1 percent last year from some 40 percent between April and December 2011, soon after the nuclear accident at the plant in March that year. No products have surpassed the level in checks since last April.
The federation is scheduled to make a final decision late next month. “The environment of the seas of Fukushima has improved, and conditions for reviving fisheries are being laid out,” federation leader Tetsu Nozaki told reporters.
After the tsunami-triggered triple meltdown at the nuclear plant, the federation voluntarily halted all of its coastal fishing. In June 2012, it started trial operations in a limited area, which has since expanded in steps.

January 28, 2016 Posted by | Fukushima 2016 | | 2 Comments

Japan considering building network of tunnels beneath seabed to store thousands of tonnes of nuclear waste


Government agencies are discussing the plan as a ‘long-term solution’ while environmentalists have dismissed it as an expensive ‘pipe dream’.
A team of experts from Japan’s Nuclear Waste Management ­Organisation is examining the possibility of storing thousands of tonnes of highly radioactive nuclear waste in tunnels deep beneath the Pacific Ocean.
Japan already has a stockpile of some 40,000 units of vitrified nuclear waste, with each of the stainless steel containers containing around 500kg of radioactive material, with more waste being produced.
Two of Japan’s 55 nuclear reactors resumed operations last year, after their operations were subjected to detailed scrutiny as a result of the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear plant, caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.
A number of additional reactors have applied to restart operations, while dozens of the older plants will now have to be decommissioned as they have reached the end of their operational lives. Japan has never before decommissioned a reactor and does not have a dedicated storage facility for high-level nuclear waste.
“We are presently looking for a site and one of the options being considered is for tunnels beneath the seabed,” Kenichi Kaku, a spokesman for the agency, told the South China Morning Post.
“We are looking for a long-term solution to the issue that also meets the terms of the law on the storage of high-level waste,” Kaku explained.
A preliminary report suggests that tunnels could be excavated from the land to a distance of several kilometres offshore. The final disposal chamber would need to be in bed rock at a depth of at least 300 metres below the seabed.
The tunnels would need to be within 20km of a port, which would be required to transport vitrified waste over long distances, and the containers would be taken to the sub-seabed storage chamber by remote-controlled vehicle.
As well as being more secure from human interference, storage chambers beneath the seabed are less affected by the movement of groundwater and fluctuation in sea levels.
The experts, appointed to complete a full study by the ministry of industry, will now carry out a study of the technical issues that will need to be overcome. They will start by examining geographical features to identify possible seismic fault zones.
Kaku admitted that one result of the 2011 disaster at Fukushima is that “the Japanese public has lost confidence in science and we need to rebuild our credibility”.
Key considerations will be ensuring security in the transportation phase of highly radioactive waste, he said, while a great deal of work needs to be done to ensure that the storage chamber cannot be breached after the tunnel has been closed off.
“We need to identify active faults and volcanic regions so the waste is not affected in any way and we are looking to the experience of other countries for our plans,” Kaku said.
Environmental organisations have been quick to condemn the plan, however, with Aileen Mioko-Smith, an activist with Kyoto-based Green Action Japan, telling the Post that the proposal is “a pipe dream”.
“They talked about an ‘ice wall’ that was meant to stop ground water at the Fukushima plant becoming contaminated with radiation, but that was a pipe dream,” she said. “This is another one. It may look good on paper but how could it ever be achieved at a reasonable cost?
“And that’s before we even consider the safety of putting high-level nuclear waste beneath the seismically active seabed off Japan. It just doesn’t make sense.”

January 28, 2016 Posted by | Fukushima 2016 | | 1 Comment

NRA’s data shows contamination level in Tokyo tap water higher than Fukushima by 24 percent


According to NRA (Nuclear Regulation Authority), Cs-134/137 density in Tokyo tap water is 24% higher than Fukushima.
The report was released on 10/30/2015, titled as “Readings of radioactivity level in drinking water by prefecture” to cover from July to September in 2015.
From this report, only 0.0015 Bq/Kg of Cs-137  was detected in Fukushima drinking water. Cs-134 was not supposed to be detected. On the other hand, 0.00036 Bq/Kg of Cs-134 and 0.0015 of Bq/Kg were detected from Tokyo drinking water.
The measurement of Cs-134 is due to Fukushima accident.
NRA comments each data is based on the reports from prefectures.
It is not mentioned by Fukushima prefectural government why Cs-134 was not detected in their drinking water.

Click to access 194_20151030.pdf

January 28, 2016 Posted by | Fukushima 2016 | , | 1 Comment

Group to monitor trial of former TEPCO executives to clarify truth about Fukushima disaster


From left, Ruiko Muto, Kazuyoshi Sato and Takashi Soeda hold a news conference in Fukushima on Jan. 19 to announce a planned group that will monitor the trial of three former executives of Tokyo Electric Power Co.

Lawyers, journalists and scientists will form a group to help expose the truth and spread details about the Fukushima nuclear disaster during the criminal trial of three former executives of Tokyo Electric Power Co.
“We will encourage the court to hold a fair trial while transmitting information regarding the trial across the nation,” said an official of the planned organization, whose name is translated as “support group for the criminal procedure on the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.”
Tsunehisa Katsumata, former chairman of TEPCO, the operator of the crippled plant, and two former vice presidents, Sakae Muto and Ichiro Takekuro, face mandatory charges of professional negligence resulting in death and injury.
Although the trial is still months away, 33 people are now setting up the group, including Ruiko Muto, who heads an organization pursuing the criminal responsibility of TEPCO and government officials for the Fukushima nuclear disaster.
Tetsuji Imanaka, an assistant professor of nuclear engineering at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and Norma Field, a professor emeritus of East Asian Studies at the University of Chicago, have also joined.
Three reactors melted down at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami struck on March 11, 2011. A number of hospital patients died in the chaotic evacuation.
About 14,000 residents of Fukushima Prefecture filed a criminal complaint against TEPCO executives, government officials and scientists in 2012, saying they were aware of the dangers to the Fukushima nuclear plant from a tsunami, but they failed in their responsibility to take proper countermeasures.
Tokyo prosecutors twice decided not to indict the three former TEPCO executives. However, the Tokyo No. 5 Committee for the Inquest of Prosecution, a panel of citizens, decided to forcibly indict the three in July last year.
“It has been almost five years since the disaster, but many details, including their foreseeability of the tsunami, remain unclear,” said science writer Takashi Soeda, one of the group’s co-founders. “As TEPCO has not unveiled a sufficient amount of information even in inquiries conducted by the Diet and the government or in civil lawsuits, the truth must be uncovered through the legal force of a criminal trial.”
Five lawyers appointed by the Tokyo District Court will act as prosecutors in the trial.
Legal experts expect the lawyers will indict the former TEPCO executives and release a statement naming the victims around March 11, the fifth anniversary of the triple disaster that still haunts the Tohoku region.

January 28, 2016 Posted by | Fukushima 2016 | | 1 Comment

Nuclear reactor mockup to be used to advance decommissioning technology

jklmNARAHA, Fukushima Prefecture–A life-size model of a section of the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant that will be used in developing decommissioning technology is almost complete.

The mockup of the lower part of a reactor containment vessel will be used to develop remote-control technology used to locate the section from where radioactive water is leaking in order to repair damage, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency said.

A group of reporters from the Japan National Press Club were allowed to enter the test building of the JAEA’s Naraha Remote Technology Development Center in the town of Naraha.

The model is being built at the center by a consortium comprised of electric utilities and nuclear plant manufacturers. It is scheduled to be completed in mid-March.

Radiation levels near the reactors that went in meltdown in the aftermath of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster remain too high for workers to approach. The development of remote-control technology is key to smoothly conducting the decommissioning work, which is estimated to take 30 to 40 years.

The Naraha center also houses a massive screen on which a 3-D image of the interior of a reactor building can be viewed by wearing special eyeglasses.


January 28, 2016 Posted by | Fukushima 2016 | | 1 Comment

Radiation in Tokyo’s water at higher level than in Fukushima’s

water-radiationflag-japanNRA’s data shows contamination level in Tokyo tap water higher than Fukushima by 24 percent  According to NRA (Nuclear Regulation Authority), Cs-134/137 density in Tokyo tap water is 24% higher than Fukushima.

The report was released on 10/30/2015, titled as “Readings of radioactivity level in drinking water by prefecture” to cover from July to September in 2015.

From this report, only 0.0015 Bq/Kg of Cs-137  was detected in Fukushima drinking water. Cs-134 was not supposed to be detected. On the other hand, 0.00036 Bq/Kg of Cs-134 and 0.0015 of Bq/Kg were detected from Tokyo drinking water.

The measurement of Cs-134 is due to Fukushima accident.

NRA comments each data is based on the reports from prefectures.

It is not mentioned by Fukushima prefectural government why Cs-134 was not detected in their drinking water.

January 28, 2016 Posted by | Japan, water | 1 Comment

Doomsday Clock to stay at 3 minutes to midnight

Doomsday clock 2016‘Doomsday Clock’ to stand still amid nuclear tensions  26 January 2016  The so-called Doomsday Clock will remain set at three-minutes-to-midnight amid global perils such as climate change and nuclear proliferation.

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (BPA), the group behind the clock, said the standing still is “not good news”.

The minute hand on the Doomsday Clock is a metaphor for how vulnerable the world is to catastrophe.

“It remains the closest it has been over the past 20 years,” said Rachel Bronson, BPA’s executive director.

In addition to nuclear arms and climate change, the group also cited growing cyber threats and an uptick in terrorist attacks in their decision to keep clock unchanged.

Lawrence Krauss, chairman of the BPA’s Board of Sponsors said that the Iran nuclear agreement and the Paris climate accord were good news, but said it remained unclear if the Paris agreement would actually reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

He also noted increased tensions between the US and Russia as a sore point.

Last year, the scientists moved the clock up from five-minutes-to-midnight, noting the threat of climate change, the modernisation of nuclear weapons as well as large nuclear arsenals.

At the time, they said the threats were “extraordinary and undeniable threats to the continued existence of humanity”.

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists was founded at the University of Chicago in 1945 by a group of scientists who helped develop the first atomic weapons. Their metaphorical clock was created two years later.

Today, the group includes physicists and environmental scientists from around the world, who decide whether to adjust the clock in consultation with the group’s Board of Sponsors – which includes 17 Nobel laureates.

The closest the clock has come to midnight was in 1953, when it was moved to two minutes from the apocalyptic midnight, following hydrogen bomb tests by the US and Russia.

January 28, 2016 Posted by | 2 WORLD, weapons and war | 1 Comment