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Pacific Forum Members Hold Third Briefing With Japan Regarding Fukushima Treated Nuclear Wastewater

Thursday, 16 September 2021, 6:01 am
Press Release: Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat

Wed 15th September 2021—Pacific nations continue to raise questions and concerns in closed briefing sessions around plans by Japan to discharge over a million tonnes of treated water from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the Pacific Ocean.

The Government of Japan committed to ongoing dialogue with Forum Members as a priority follow up to the PALM9 Summit in July. This followed Japan’s announcement in April of plans to begin discharge in 2023, for a period of up to 40 years. The announcement drew strong global response, including from the Forum Chair and Leaders.

In his opening comments at the third briefing on Tuesday afternoon, Secretary General of the Pacific Islands Forum Henry Puna noted the issues require “open and frank consultation” along with sustained dialogue at the political and technical level.

Japan officials presented a status update on the ALPS (Advanced Liquid Processing System) Treated Water, interim measures regarding the planned discharge, and outcomes of the latest International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) visit to Fukushima.

While appreciative of the information being shared by Japan, Secretary General Puna reiterated the region’s unequivocal need for information as being key to safeguard the Blue Pacific as a nuclear-free zone. “I appeal to the Government of Japan to continue to share the relevant information in its totality, and within agreed timelines.”

“Importantly for us in the Blue Pacific, our fears really lie in the transboundary nature of the impacts. We require nothing less than full and complete disclosure of all information and evidence to enable us to fully understand the nature and extent of the impact, and to enable us to make a comprehensive and unbiased assessment of the impacts of the proposed ALPS water discharge.”

As reiterated by Forum Foreign Ministers on 27 July, the region is actively pursuing efforts to advance Forum Leaders’ commitments to international consultation, international law, and independent expertise to provide guidance and verifiable scientific assessments. To accelerate efforts, the Forum will engage independent experts to support the region’s efforts over the next months.

Thanking the Government of Japan, Secretary General Puna said he is hopeful there will be ways to address Pacific concerns to reach “solutions that are based on science, and consistent with legal and moral obligations.”

https://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO2109/S00163/pacific-forum-members-hold-third-briefing-with-japan-regarding-fukushima-treated-nuclear-wastewater.htm

September 17, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , , , | Leave a comment

TEPCO plan to discharge water relies on winning local trust

Storage tanks holding treated contaminated water at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant complex on April 12

September 7, 2021

More than four months have passed since the government gave the green light to plans for Tokyo Electric Power Co. to release treated radioactive water from the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant into the Pacific Ocean.

TEPCO, the plant’s operator, recently announced it would construct a tunnel to discharge the water about 1 kilometer offshore. At the same time, the government unveiled its strategy for responding to concerns the discharge could cause irreparable reputational damage to local businesses, the fishing industry, in particular.

Ever since the nuclear crisis triggered by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster, the utility has been pumping tons of water to cool melted nuclear fuel at the wrecked facility. Rain and ground water have added to the deluge with the result that the volume of radiation-contaminated water has continued to grow rapidly.

The water is stored in more than 1,000 tanks installed within the compound after being treated with special equipment to eliminate most of the highly radioactive materials. TEPCO said the tanks will reach capacity around spring 2023. The plant operator then intends to start releasing the treated water after first diluting it with seawater.

Under TEPCO’s plan, an undersea tunnel will be built to discharge the treated water. It said the tunnel will ensure that the treated water does not re-enter the on-site discharge equipment after it has been diluted.

This will be a gigantic construction project that will start with a geological survey of the seabed, something that must be approved by the Nuclear Regulation Authority.

TEPCO pledged to measure the concentration of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced as a byproduct in nuclear reactors which cannot be removed with filtering equipment, before the water is released into the ocean. This is a welcome effort to allay concerns among local businesses and communities, especially the fisheries industry.

The company, whose reputation has further been tarnished by a series of embarrassing revelations about security lapses, including those at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plant in Niigata Prefecture, needs to realize it has an obligation to take all possible steps to ensure the operation is conducted safely and be willing to disclose all related information and options.

No matter how cautiously the problem of tritium-tainted water is handled, the plan to release treated contaminated water into the sea is bound to trigger negative publicity and deter people from eating fish caught in local waters.

To deal with this challenge, the government decided to establish a fund to buy catches that can be put in frozen storage. The fund is framed as an emergency relief measure to assist fishermen and fisheries businesses expecting to face sharp drops in sales. It is a well-conceived proposal to help those affected by the nuclear disaster regain their livelihoods, in addition to providing cash to compensate for their economic losses.

But not all marine products are fit for freezing. Frozen fish tend to fetch lower prices compared with when they are sold fresh. How to secure viable operations of the proposed fund remains a key question, but the government has only said that details will be worked out by the end of the year.

Fisheries businesses may not be only targets of rumors that require compensation payouts. To ease anxiety among local businesses, TEPCO said victims alone will not be forced to bear the burden of proof. The company says it will assess economic losses by comparing prices and sales after it starts releasing the contaminated water into the sea with corresponding estimates for before the operation gets under way.

Still, local businesses remain concerned about whether they will receive appropriate compensation from the utility, which rejected out-of-court settlements with a number of plaintiffs in damages lawsuits proposed by the government’s Nuclear Damage Compensation Dispute Resolution Center. The government, which is effectively the utility’s largest shareholder, has a duty to supervise the company to ensure it offers compensation swiftly and appropriately to any new parties that suffer losses as a result of the water discharge operation.

TEPCO hopes to begin discharging the treated water in spring 2023. It has pledged not to “undertake any disposal measure without gaining the understanding of stakeholders.”

The company will not be able to move forward with the plan unless it first wins the trust of the local communities through sincere and honest talks.

https://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/14435063?fbclid=IwAR2txoqs9WIH195ny_NmOsmTJm92sJua2pWZ4VaiLZtypAL6SQtISVwSjKo

September 8, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , , | Leave a comment

Experts say that the government’s measures against harmful rumors are “an extension of what we’ve been doing for 10 years.

We have been reporting in this series about the ripple effect of the release of tritiated water into the ocean.

Many people concerned about the release of tritium into the sea are concerned about the reputational damage.

On the 24th, the government presented an interim summary of the immediate measures to deal with the reputational damage.

First of all, as a measure to prevent reputational damage, fish should be raised in treated water and information should be disseminated in an easy-to-understand manner.

The measures include monitoring by international organizations and ensuring transparency.

In the event of reputational damage, a new fund will be set up to temporarily purchase frozen marine products, and sufficient compensation will be provided to match the actual damage.

Looking at it this way, it seems to be a continuation of the previous measures. We examined whether these measures are really effective.

Chief Cabinet Secretary Katsunobu Kato
“We will create an environment in which we can overcome rumors and continue our business with peace of mind, even if rumors should arise.

A meeting of relevant ministers on March 24.
The government has put together a list of immediate measures to deal with the reputational damage caused by the release of treated water.

The government and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) plan to release treated water from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the sea by the spring of the following year.

One of the fishermen in the prefecture commented on the measures taken.
“One of the fishermen in the prefecture said, “The decision was made without any discussion or explanation.
“One of the fishermen in the prefecture severely criticized the measures, saying, “We can’t accept it and this way of proceeding is unacceptable.

The prefectural fishermen’s federation also said, “We haven’t received an explanation from the government yet, and we want to wait for that before considering our response.

There is a strong opposition to the release of radioactive materials both inside and outside of the prefecture.

“They have not yet fulfilled their promise not to release the radioactive materials without the understanding of the people concerned.

Professor Ryota Koyama of Fukushima University, who has studied reputational damage in the prefecture and served as a member of the government’s subcommittee, points out that the latest measures to curb reputational damage are “almost the same” as the previous measures.

Professor Ryota Koyama, School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University
“I’m concerned that if this is the case, it’s just an extension of what we’ve been doing for the past 10 years, and if we say we’re going to release the pollutants two years from now under the same conditions, the problem will get bigger.

Another problem is the assumption that reputational rumors will occur, according to Professor Koyama.

Professor Ryota Koyama, School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University
“If we assume that harmful rumors will occur, then we cannot agree to that, and I think the whole premise is that we should not create a situation two years from now where the price of (marine products) falls to the point where we have to buy them, or where trading is suspended.

He also said that we need to analyze the current situation and rethink what we should do to prevent harmful rumors.

Professor Ryota Koyama, School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University
Professor Ryota Koyama of Fukushima University’s Department of Food and Agricultural Sciences said, “Consumers and distributors in Tokyo do not have a good understanding of the situation. I would like to see a process of analyzing this lack of progress and then formulating countermeasures based on the current situation.

https://news.yahoo.co.jp/articles/72f01ddbbd66f0054fbe93f1f8892fc63747493e?fbclid=IwAR17VG3KBgoM1uVOKeZuzQ-Pqj3utQJvme_6bij3_RyKFgorZowD4g0HUw0

August 27, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , , | Leave a comment

TEPCO to build new 1km long undersea tunnel to release Fukushima Daiichi radioactive water offshore

On the 24th, it was learned through interviews with officials that Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has decided to build a new submarine tunnel about one kilometer long, run pipes through it, and release the treated water from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant offshore. The radioactive substance tritium contained in the treated water will be diluted to below the standard value, but by releasing the water offshore, the company hopes to further dilute it and spread it, thereby curbing the reputational damage that the local people are concerned about.
 On the same day, the government held a meeting of ministers concerned with the disposal of the treated water. If the release of the water into the ocean causes damage such as a decrease in sales or prices of marine products, the government will purchase the water at its own expense to support the fishermen, and is preparing the environment for the release. On the other hand, there is a deep-rooted opposition from the local community and fishermen, and there are many uncertainties about the future outlook.

https://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/126513?fbclid=IwAR03x8ThF7rOndAwNeslPXgfixT1ZdXQiYRR4kjpEAqAzb2E0bXZovVaKmo

August 24, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , | Leave a comment

Japan undecided on timing, method of Fukushima water release

Storage tanks for treated contaminated water are seen at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Okuma town, Fukushima prefecture.

March 3, 2021

Japanese authorities are undecided on how and when to discharge radioactive water from the devastated Fukushima nuclear plant into the sea or air, amid heightened environmental and public safety concerns from its neighboring countries, including South Korea. 

“The exact timing on when the government will decide on the method and the period is yet to be decided,” said a Japanese government official Wednesday. 

“We are still evaluating the situation. But it’s true that there are limits to the storage space of the tanks, and the government consider it as a task that cannot be delayed,” the official said, reiterating Tokyo’s stance to release the contaminated water, which has been filtered to reduce radioactivity. 

The remarks came during a press briefing organized by the Japanese Embassy in South Korea, as next week marks the 10-year anniversary of the devastating earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, that hit the Fukushima area and caused a meltdown of the three nuclear reactors. Attending the event was officials from the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo Electric Power, the state-run operator of the plant, and Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The liquid, which includes water used cool the power station, was contaminated after the nuclear disaster, and Tokyo has been pushing to release more than 1 million metric tons of treated water it has collected at the thousands of tanks at the site since 2011, as the storage capacity is set to run out by summer of 2022. But such a plan has sparked strong opposition and environmental worries among the public in both South Korea and Japan.

The water is being processed through the Advanced Liquid Processing System, or ALPS, to remove most of the dangerous radioactive materials, except for the traces of tritium, a radioactive substance which is still in the water — albeit at low level, according to Tokyo.

Last November, Japan was set to make a final decision on the water — either between disposing in the sea or vaporizing and releasing it into the air — as both were considered the most “realistic options,” but it has been delayed amid fierce backlash from local residents, the local fishery and agriculture industry and neighboring countries.

The authorities said that relevant decision will be made in consultation with local residents, industry personnel and neighboring countries through diplomatic channels. It also stressed it would carry out safety inspections of the release with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and provide transparent, scientific information to its neighbors as well. 

If Japan decides to discharge the water, it will likely be dumped as early as summer of 2022 when the storage reaches full capacity. 

But the official raised a possibility on the delay of the discharge, considering the filling up of the tank — which includes groundwater and rain that seeps into the plant — inside the storage has slowed down, due to relatively low precipitation in 2020. 

“The period as to when the water will be completely filled will depend on the level of rain and typhoons this year,” the official said. “We will review the plan considering such situation.”

http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20210303000971

March 6, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , | Leave a comment

Korean, Japanese bishops oppose discharge from Fukushima plant

Scientists, environmentalists and fishing groups are against the idea of releasing contaminated water into the sea

February 17, 2021

Catholic bishops in South Korea and Japan have issued a joint statement to strongly oppose the Japanese government’s decision to discharge radioactive water from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the sea.

Following years of debate over the disposal of the liquid which includes water used to cool the Fukushima Daiichi plant that was hit by a massive tsunami and earthquake in 2011, Japanese authorities have decided to release a million tonnes of treated water into the sea.

The initial plan was to start releasing the water from 2022 but a final decision has not been made, according to Japanese media.

Most of the radioactive isotopes have been removed using a complex filtration process. But one isotope, tritium, cannot be removed, so water has been stored in huge tanks that will fill up by 2022, the BBC reported.

Scientists, environmentalists and fishing groups have opposed the idea of releasing contaminated water into the sea, citing possible risks. 

“We oppose the discharge of tritium-containing water, a radioactive material that has been purified and treated, into the ocean,” said a joint statement from the Justice and Peace Commissions of the bishops’ conferences of Korea and Japan, the Korean bishops’ ecological and environmental committee and the Japanese bishops’ subcommittee on nuclear for peace.

The statement has been signed by heads of each organization and concerns have been raised about the direct impact of the contaminated water on public health and marine life. 

“The water contains tritium, which is a radioactive material, purified through the contaminated water treatment system of the Fukushima plant. Secondary treatment of radionuclides remaining in the treated water is still in the testing stage, and no definite results have been obtained,” the statement said.

The statement also pointed out that the report from the Japanese government did not mention the effects of the treated water on marine life, the marine environment and human health.

“Once released into the sea, radioactive material cannot be restored to its original state. It will have impacts on humans and nature. It will cause greater anxiety and damage to people around the world.”

In a separate statement, the Korean bishops’ ecological and environmental committee expressed concerns about the recent tritium leak at the Wolseong nuclear power plant in Gyeongju in South Korea.

On Jan. 7, Korean media reported on radioactivity leaking from the plant, prompting Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company to investigate. The initial results exposed a wide range of radioactive contamination in the plant and adjacent areas

The Korean Church demanded the government “conduct a thorough and transparent investigation into the leakage and immediate follow-up measures for radioactive leaks in all nuclear power plants.”

https://www.ucanews.com/news/korean-japanese-bishops-oppose-discharge-from-fukushima-plant/91444?fbclid=IwAR1JLaLQWebu-172EBcPXom7MOG_77cVEsiIf4xJKNabysOGHEYAhfibLu4#

February 21, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , , , | Leave a comment

Dumping Fukushima’s contaminated water into the ocean could be a violation of international law

Environmental implications require an international conversation

Storage tanks for radioactive water at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

January 10,2021

At a meeting of parties to the London Convention and Protocol on Dec. 14, the South Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) clearly stated that the release of contaminated water from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant into the ocean was not a sovereign decision for the Japanese government to make. Its reason was that the damage would extend beyond the scope of Japan’s jurisdiction, affecting nearby countries including South Korea.

While the US and France have stated their trust in the safety of releasing the water and referred to it as a matter for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to oversee, delegations from China, Russia, and Canada indicated their support for the South Korean government’s position. David Santillo, a Greenpeace Research Laboratories senior scientist who took part in the meeting, stressed that the matter of releasing the water into the ocean was something to be discussed at an international level.

During the meeting, the MOF worked to encourage other countries in the region to indicate their support, while also ensuring an opportunity to continue the debate at the next meeting. Despite these efforts by the South Korean government, some in South Korea still maintain that there is nothing wrong with dumping the water because it’s been treated. This conclusion is faulty.

The 1.37 million tons (as of summer 2022) that are currently set to be released into the Pacific Ocean are just the start of the issue. Even after that enormous amount has been discharged, radioactive material — hundreds of tons produced each week at the Fukushima plant — will continue to be released. Some of the radioactive substances have half-lives in the tens of thousands of years or more. The main reason for the water’s contamination has to do with three reactors that melted down in the Fukushima disaster. Cooling water has to be added daily to control the reactors as they continue to undergo nuclear fission. This means that water is going to continue to be contaminated until the reactors’ nuclear fuel and waste have been completely removed.

The amount of nuclear fuel remaining after the Chernobyl disaster, commonly viewed as the worst nuclear catastrophe in history, has been reported at around 570 tons. The Ukrainian government predicted it would take 100 years to remove it all. This means there is no way to pledge any concrete timeline. Within the Fukushima reactors, there are more than 1,100 tons of remaining nuclear fuel and waste, nearly twice as much as Chernobyl. In particular, most of the strontium, which inflicts the most biological damage, is still in the reactors.

As more water is contaminated by this highly concentrated radioactive material, it accumulates in the ecosystem. The amount of contaminated water that the Japanese government plans to release into the Pacific already exceeds 1 million tons; over the next 10 years, it could rise to 2 million. The radioactive substances in the water are another issue. As cesium and strontium deposit and accrete on the ocean floor, they can release radioactive matter over the long term. The effects on marine life are likewise severe.

The problem is that there is no way of gauging or preventing the damage ahead of time. This is why there are such strict regulations on the disposal of radioactive material into the ocean. The Japanese government has argued that its release of Fukushima water is justified by likening it to the release of cooling water from normally operating nuclear power plants, but no precedent exists where permission has been granted to discharge waste from a nuclear accident into the marine environment. As such, South Korea needs to stop the Japanese government’s decision to avoid a tragic outcome.

To begin with, Seoul has the right to demand that Tokyo perform an official environmental impact assessment. The release of the contaminated water into the ocean would be a violation of international law if it does not conform to the principle of prior notification and the obligation to perform an environmental assessment.

Even the IAEA, which has sided with the Japanese government, explicitly mentioned the need for an environmental impact assessment in its report. The South Korean government must speak out and ensure it happens.

By Chang Mari, Greenpeace energy campaigner

http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/english_editorials/978035.html

January 25, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , , , | Leave a comment

55% oppose release of treated water from Fukushima plant

Numerous tanks containing contaminated water from the stricken reactors at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant occupy a large portion of the site’s premises in October.

January 4, 2021

Fifty-five percent of voters in a survey expressed opposition to the government’s plan to release treated contaminated water from the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant into the sea, while 32 percent support the measure.

The Asahi Shimbun survey also found that more than 80 percent of respondents fear the reputation of local seafood would be hurt if the treated water were discharged.

The government is moving to release tons of water from the stricken facility situated on the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan because the plant’s capacity to store radioactive water on its premises is projected to reach its limit in summer 2022.

This will be accomplished by removing most of the extremely hazardous radioactive substances and diluting the polluted water sufficiently so that it comfortably clears the government’s safety standards for disposal.

However, local fishermen and the national federation of fishermen’s groups, along with local municipalities, all staunchly oppose discharging the water.

Fifty percent of voters supporting the Cabinet headed by Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga and 47 percent of Suga’s Liberal Democratic Party are against the plan, outnumbering those who favor it, the survey showed.

By gender, men were sharply divided over the question, with 44 percent endorsing it and 46 percent opposing the plan.

But 62 percent of women took exception to it, compared with 22 percent who approved of the plan.

Asked whether the image of local seafood would be adversely affected after the water is released, 42 percent said they were “deeply concerned” about the matter, while 44 percent replied they were “somewhat concerned.”

The ratio of those who were “not concerned so much” came to 9 percent. Those who were “not concerned at all” stood at 2 percent.

But the survey also showed that 68 percent of voters backing the discharge said it will undermine the reputation of local seafood.

With regard to the government’s handling of the Fukushima nuclear disaster to date, 67 percent gave the thumbs down and 20 percent rated its performance highly.

Among supporters of the LDP, 56 percent had a low opinion of the government’s approach.

The survey also showed that 64 percent of respondents who took exception to government’s response were against the planned discharge of treated contaminated water into the sea.

The survey was conducted from November to December by sending questionnaires to 3,000 eligible voters nationwide selected at random. There were 2,126 valid responses, or 71 percent of the total.

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/14080736

January 9, 2021 Posted by | Fukushima 2021 | , , | Leave a comment

No radioactive water dump!

November 22, 2020

From GENSUIKIN

The Japanese government appears ready to dispose of radioactive water contaminated by tritium and other radioactive materials from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean. GENSUIKIN is asking for your support to prevent this reckless attempt by the government. Please see the end of the article for action steps.

At GENSUIKIN, we have campaigned against any uses of nuclear technology by any country, including the commercial use of nuclear energy such as nuclear power plants, on the basis that “nuclear and humanity cannot coexist”.

On March 11, 2011, during the Great East Japan Earthquake, four of six nuclear reactors operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) had core meltdowns caused by loss of cooling power. Due to the high radiation dose at the facility – 42 Sv in the containment vessel and 5150 mSv in the buildings — it is impossible to know the true extent of damage to the core while cooling water continues to be injected to prevent criticality. 

There is now widespread opposition to nuclear power in Japan. Pictured: a rally in front of the Japanese Diet on October 27, 2020. (Photo courtesy of Gensuikin.)

In such a situation, it is extremely dangerous for cooling water to be contaminated by high level radioactive materials, to accumulate to as much as 1.23 million cubic meters and then, potentially, to leak into the groundwater.

At present, after decontamination by an Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS), the contaminated water is stored in tanks at the nuclear site. There are currently 1,044 tanks at the site. Astonishingly, to remove the contaminated water, the Japanese government and TEPCO plan to dispose of it by dumping it into the Pacific Ocean. There are a number of problems with this, around which we are organizing opposition movements in solidarity with residents in Fukushima. 

1. Hitachi’s Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) is not able to eliminate radioactive materials completely, especially tritium.

ALPS is supposed to eliminate other radioactive materials. However, in August 2018 Japanese media reported that ALPS had consistently failed to eliminate a variety of other radioactive elements, including iodine-129, ruthenium-106, and strontium. 

It has been revealed that, in 70% of the tanks, the amount of radioactive substances present is 20,000 times the standard. TEPCO promises it will conduct secondary processing to lower the amount of radioactive substances to below standard level, but has yet to keep its promise; thus the disposal of the contaminated water is still a dangerous act. Tritium cannot be eliminated by ALPS at all. TEPCO estimates that there are 860 trillion becquerels of tritium in the contaminated water as a whole.

There are varied opinions on how hazardous tritium is. It is often pointed out that tritium absorbed through food has negative effects on cells and damages DNA. TEPCO claims that it will dilute tritium-contaminated water to below standard level and dispose of it into the ocean; however, the absolute quantity of tritium in the water has not changed, and it is pointed out that tritium’s dangerous effects of bioaccumulation of radioactive material in fish can be seen throughout the food chain.

2. The disposal of contaminated water to the ocean violates international law.

For example, article 207 and article 213 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; [ ] article 1 and article 4 of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter of 1972; and article 4 of the 1996 Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972(London Protocol: LP).

There is justifiable concern about the contamination of the ocean and its fish stocks if the radioactive water from Fukushima is dumped into the sea. (Photo: “sushi from fukushima” by klara.kristina is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea” article 207 requests that “States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources”. The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter of 1972 and London Protocol: (LP) forbid dumping any concentration of radioactive material into the sea. 

However, insisting that “discharge” is different from “disposal”, the Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) has tried to approve dumping into the ocean without consensus. This ignores the fact that, when Russia disposed of 900 cubic meters of low-level radioactive waste liquid on October 6th, 1993, the JAEC and Japanese government criticized such disposal, thereby setting a precedent that disposal of even low-level radioactive waste liquid into the sea is not acceptable.

GENSUIKIN regards the disposal of Fukushima contaminated water to the ocean as a violation of international law, and breaking the promise made to international society to abandon the disposal of wastes into the ocean.

3. Japanese government and TEPCO have abandonedthe search for other measures with which todeal with the contaminated water.

They choose only disposal into the sea as it is the easiest and cheapest measure.

TEPCO argues that it will become too difficult to store the contaminated water due to a shortage of land required for holding tanks. However, it seems that they are making no effort to get land. While some areas are unsuitable due to radioactive contamination from the nuclear accident in Fukushima, there is some more usable land on the nuclear power plant site, contrary to TEPCO’s claims.

Furthermore, there are more options for reducing the space needed for the holding tanks. One such option is to use technology such as “Grease Solidification”, first implemented at the Savannah River Site Disposal Facility in the U.S., which solidifies highly tritium-contaminated water to be buried. TEPCO and the Japanese government have not considered these costly resolutions at all and have maintained disposal to the sea as the only option. This is not acceptable. 

4. A betrayal of Japan’s fisheries.

The Fukushima Prefectural Federation of Fisheries Co-operative Associations made a request to TEPCO, stating that: “After the processing of radioactive contaminated water by ALPS, TEPCO is responsible for holding it in tanks in the nuclear power plant sites and must not dispose of the water into the sea without consent from fisheries and Japanese people”.

In August 2015, TEPCO responded that: “Without agreement from stakeholders, we will not dispose of any water and after processing by ALPS, the water will be held in the tanks at the site”. 

Any such disposal now of water into the sea would be an act of betrayal to the fisheries.

Japan Fisheries Cooperatives and Fukushima Prefectural Federation of Fisheries Co-operative Associations have unanimously passed a resolution stating that they “firmly oppose the disposal of contaminated water into the sea”. 

Japan’s fisheries firmly oppose the dumping of radioactive water from the Fukushima nuclear site into the Pacific Ocean. (Photo: The damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station as seen during a sea-water sampling boat journey. Credit: IAEA/David Osborn/WikiMediaCommons

Moreover, Fukushima Prefecture Federation of forestry cooperatives and Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives strongly oppose the disposal as well. Nineteen local assemblies in Fukushima Prefecture have submitted a written opinion opposing the disposal. There is no agreement on the disposal among stakeholders, which is a precondition of TEPCO’s promise to implement the disposal. TEPCO must not force the disposal. 

As we explain above, there are many problems about the disposal of contaminated water into the Pacific Ocean. Therefore, there are no international and national agreements about it. In facing strong opposition to the disposal, the Japanese government postponed a cabinet council decision implementing the disposal, which was expected to be decided last October. 

There is strong opposition abroad. Whether the Japanese government is forced to abandon the disposal depends on opposition from public opinion. GENSUIKIN would like to do our best in having the government abandon the disposal.

TO HELP: Please send comments no later than November 30, voicing your — our your organization’s — opposition the disposal of Fukushima radioactive waste into the Pacific Ocean.Email you comments to: office@peace-forum.top  or kikosanm4004@gmail.com. Also, please also reach out to your elected officials and request that they send a message to the Japanese Consulate or Embassy in your area. The Science, ICT, Broadcasting and Communications Committee of the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea has already passed a resolution requesting that the Japanese government  establish safer measures when processing the contaminated water.

Japan Congress Against A and H-Bombs (GENSUIKIN) was established in 1965, and is one of the largest anti-nuclear and peace organizations in Japan. GENSUIKIN has local organizations as members, consisting of labor unions, women’s organizations, youth organizations and civil society groups in all 47 prefectures of Japan.

Headline photo: Workers at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station work among underground water storage pools on 17 April 2013. Photo Credit: Greg Webb / IAEA / WikimediaCommons

November 22, 2020 Posted by | Fukushima 2020 | , , | Leave a comment

Japan claims to be willing to consult with neighboring counties like South Korea to ensure the safe release of contaminated water from its Fukushima nuclear power plant

Japan to consult with S. Korea in monitoring radioactive water disposal from Fukushima plant

November 20, 2020

Japan is willing to consult with neighboring counties like South Korea to ensure the safe release of contaminated water from its Fukushima nuclear power plant.
That’s what was said by a senior Japanese embassy official in Seoul on Friday as Tokyo is expected to soon announce its plan to discharge more than one.two million tons of radioactive water into the sea possibly starting in 2022.
The official said the embassy is willing to disclose all information if Seoul participates in the monitoring process to help dispel worries raised by fisheries industries and environmental groups.

http://www.arirang.co.kr/News/News_View.asp?nseq=268158

Japanese Embassy implies likelihood of Fukushima releasing contaminated water

November. 21, 2020

A top-ranking official at the Japanese Embassy in South Korea on Friday mentioned Japan’s plan to release contaminated water that was used to cool the the first nuclear power plant in Fukushima in an interview with South Korean journalists, saying, “It is too early to affirm the plan but it may be specified within this year. We expect to release the water around summer 2022.” “The levels of radioactive substances at the time of release will meet regulatory standards,” he said.

The remarks seemingly intend to bring the issue to the surface with the aim of alleviating a backlash from South Korea. If Tokyo makes an official announcement to release contaminated water, it will serve as the first trigger for dispute between the two neighboring nations since the inauguration of the Suga administration.  

Saying that the decision on the issue may not be put off indefinitely, the high-ranking official expected Tokyo to determine the timing of releasing the used cooling water before the opening of next year’s Tokyo Olympic Games at the latest. “In 2022, the site around the Fukushima power plants will be filled up with storage tanks where contaminated water is kept. Thus, there will be no space for extra tanks,” he said.

Regarding the South Korean government’s concerns about the release of contaminated water, the official replied that Japan has monitoring measures in place while promising to disclose all relevant information. However, he also remarked that the decision per se is within the domain of sovereignty, making it clear that Japan has no intention of discussing the issue. In response, the South Korean Foreign Affairs Ministry stated that it will demand that Japan should keep related information open and accessible at all times.
https://www.donga.com/en/article/all/20201121/2247772/1/Japanese-Embassy-implies-likelihood-of-Fukushima-releasing-contaminated-water

November 22, 2020 Posted by | Fukushima 2020 | , , , | Leave a comment

Japan Set to Decide Timing of Fukushima Water Release As Early As This Year

Japanese embassy’s official in Seoul official refuted claims that releasing the water without securing permission from regional neighbors would be an international violation.

November 20, 2020

Japan will soon decide when to start releasing radioactive water from the disabled Fukushima nuclear power plant into the ocean.

An official from the Japanese Embassy in Seoul said on Friday that the timing of the water release could be finalized as early as this year.

The official said Tokyo is open to verifying the process of treating the tainted water with Seoul and to reveal the data in a transparent manner.

Tokyo projects tank storage for the tainted water will reach its maximum limit in the summer of 2022.

The treatment process – the multi-nuclide-removing Advanced Liquid Processing System(ALPS) – is unable to remove some radioactive substances, including tritium. The official, however, stressed that the tritium-containing water would still fulfill scientific safety standards.

The official refuted claims that releasing the water without securing permission from regional neighbors would be an international violation.

November 22, 2020 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , | Leave a comment

Japan willing to work with S. Korea on monitoring of Fukushima water treatment: embassy official

Activists stage a campaign against Japan’s envisioned plan to discharge into the sea the contaminated water from its wrecked Fukushima nuclear plant in front of the former site of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul, located in Seoul’s central Jongno district, on Nov. 9.

Nov 20, 2020

Japan is willing to work with South Korea on the monitoring of the envisioned treatment and release into the ocean of contaminated water from the wrecked Fukushima nuclear power plant, a senior embassy official said Friday.

The official’s remark comes as Tokyo is expected to soon announce its plan to gradually discharge into the sea more than 1.2 million tons of radioactive water stored in tanks since the 2011 meltdowns following an earthquake and tsunami.

Tokyo has pushed for the disposal into the Pacific Ocean, saying that the storage capacity will run out by the summer of 2022 and that it’s the most realistic and relatively harmless disposal method. But such a plan has sparked strong opposition and worries among the public in both South Korea and Japan.

“We will disclose all information if you’re interested in monitoring,” an official from the Japanese Embassy in Seoul said on condition of anonymity during a media briefing when asked if Tokyo is willing to verify the treatment process and share related data with Seoul.

Exactly how the monitoring will be carried out and shared with other countries has yet to be decided, but Tokyo intends to do it through consultations with neighboring countries, the official said.

“We are fully aware of the South Korean government’s policy and will faithfully respond to that.”

He added, though, that the actual monitoring, if decided, likely won’t take place until 2022 when the disposal process would begin in earnest.

Japan was expected to finalize the decision late last month but put off the announcement apparently due to strong opposition from the local fisheries industry.

Seoul has repeatedly called for Tokyo to provide concrete explanations as to how it will deal with the radioactive water and transparently share information related to the disposal plan.

Regarding the disclosure of related information, the embassy official stressed that the Japanese government will continue efforts to provide details so as to help dispel worries and fear harbored by South Koreans.

“We have had various occasions where we heard the opinions of many countries, including South Korea … and we’ll continue to do so. We are frequently in contact and cooperating with the South Korean government,” he said.

Environmental groups and activists, such as Greenpeace, have voiced concerns over unknown long-term effects of releasing the treated water and called for further examination.

The Tokyo Electric Power Corp., which operates the plant, says the water will be treated enough to remove all radioactive material before its release except for tritium, an element that it says is largely harmless.

Such a disposal method is also a common standard of practice already employed by other countries, according to Japanese officials. (Yonhap)

http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20201120000596

November 22, 2020 Posted by | Fukushima 2020 | , , , | Leave a comment

Taiwanese protest plan to dump water from Japan nuclear plant into sea

November 19, 2020

Taipei, Nov. 19 (CNA) A group of Taiwanese staged a protest in Taipei on Thursday against a plan by the Japanese government to release more than a million tonnes of water into the ocean from the disabled Fukushima nuclear power plant, starting in 2022.

At the rally in front of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), some 20 supporters of the “Nuclear Go Zero” movement called on the ministry to push back, via diplomatic channels, against the Japanese government’s controversial plan.

Tsai Ya-ying (蔡雅瀅), a lawyer affiliated with the Wild at Heart Legal Defense Association in Taiwan, said at the rally that releasing “contaminated” water from the disabled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power would pose a risk to humans who might eat the many marine species that migrate in the warm current between Taiwan and Japan.

Another protester, Tsai Chung-yueh (蔡中岳), deputy CEO of the environmental organization Citizen of the Earth, said contamination of the marine ecology could last for 30-40 years, if the water is dumped into the ocean.

The protesters are opposed to a plan announced in October by the Japanese government to start releasing more than 1 million tonnes of water from the power plant, which was the site of a major nuclear disaster in 2011 when Japan was hit by a massive earthquake and tsunami.

Since then, Japan has been trying to find a way of disposing of the water that was used to cool the power plant and which has been increasing in volume due to rainwater seeping into the structure, according to international news reports.

By summer of 2022, the 1,000 huge storage tanks will reach their full capacity, and the water will be treated, diluted, and released into the Pacific Ocean over several decades, the reports said.

At a regular press briefing Thursday, MOFA spokesperson Joanne Ou (歐江安) said the Japanese government has not yet made a final decision on the issue, and MOFA will seek clarification.

She said the protesters have submitted a letter that has been passed on to the Taiwan-Japan Relations Association, which will relay their concerns to the Japanese government via Taiwan’s representative office in Tokyo.

“MOFA is also concerned about the issue, as the maritime environment, ecological conservation, and health of our citizens may be at risk,” Ou said

https://focustaiwan.tw/society/202011190015

November 22, 2020 Posted by | Fukushima 2020 | , , , | Leave a comment

Release of Fukushima’s radioactive water into sea will harm entire Asia’s coasts: Indian experts

November 18, 2020

The contaminants of the massive quantities of nuclear water will include radioactive isotopes such as cesium, tritium, cobalt and carbon-12 and may take from 12 to 30 years to decay.

Japan’s decision to release radioactive contaminated water from its wrecked nuclear plant in Fukushima into the sea by 2022 has led to alarm bells ringing in India with experts warning it would set a wrong precedent and impact aquatic and human life along coastal belts of several parts of the world.

The contaminants of the massive quantities of nuclear water will include radioactive isotopes such as cesium, tritium, cobalt and carbon-12 and may take from 12 to 30 years to decay.It will destroy everything it comes in contact with almost immediately and cripple the economy related to the fishing industry and lead to a spectrum of diseases, including cancer.

“This will be the first incident of high volumes of radioactive water being released in the sea and can set a wrong precedent for others to follow. Concerns related to the environment and health are crucial for the existence of the human race. Therefore, alternative arrangements may be debated globally,” A K Singh, director general of health science at the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO), told PTI.

On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake struck off the north-eastern coast of Japan, triggering a 15-metre tsunami that damaged the 5,306 MW Fukushima nuclear plant. It is the second biggest nuclear disaster in the history of nuclear power generation after Chernobyl in 1986.

After the accident, 1.2 million tonnes of radioactive contaminated water released from the reactors in over 1,000 tanks were kept in a cordoned off large area near the Fukushima plant.

However, authorities are running out of space as the plant is to be decommissioned and the Japanese government has decided to release the radioactive contaminated water in the sea starting 2022.?

The decision to release the radioactive water was taken on October 16, 2020 after years of debate.

Singh, among the Indian government’s top nuclear health scientists, said the release of contaminated water into the ocean will directly impact human and aquatic life.

“The possibility of ingestion of tritium in humans will increase and since this isotope will distribute in all organs in humans and long.” Radioactivity monitoring in fish and other aquatic life in near vicinity (coastal areas) and drinking water will be necessary. Deposition of the radioactive elements on the rocks has also to be seen,? he said.

While Japanese authorities have said the water would be diluted before being released and it would only contain only tritium, other health experts who have been monitoring the issue said the risk involved should never be undermined.

Yudhyavir Singh, assistant professor of anaesthesia and critical care at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, said the risks will depend entirely on the amount of the contaminants present in the nuclear wastewater and their nature.

“Mostly contaminants are radioactive isotopes which include cesium, cobalt, carbon-14 and tritium. The half-life of cesium is 30 years, it will take 30 years of half of the material to decay. Also the half-life of tritium is 12 years,” he told PTI.

“All the radioactive isotopes are carcinogenic and can induce cancer on prolonged exposure. In Chernobyl, it has been seen in the rise of thyroid cancer post nuclear leakage after 20 years,” he said.

Once the water is released into the ocean, it would be advisable to move and stay away from the coastal area in the region while completely avoiding seafood, added Yudhavir Singh, who has several publications on critical care and is a renowned researcher too.

“In the past, it has been seen that radioactive material discarded in France travelled to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and found in the bodies of seals and Tortoises,” he said, warning that South East Asian nations will be at higher risk.

Environmentalists and several organisations, including Safecast?and Greenpeace, have urged the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the operator of the Fukushima plant, to build more storage tanks and keep the water stored.

Greenpeace claimed the water could change human DNA if consumed.

“Tritium is a beta emitter with low energy so causes damage to the DNA leading to genetic damage and affecting reproductions.” It will depend upon the radioisotopes contaminants in the water. Cesium has a half-life of 30 years and will be the last to decompose,??Yudhyavir Singh said.

The quantity of cesium in the nuclear waste water may take 180-300 years to decompose, he said.

Citing studies from the World Health Organisation, M C Misra, former director of AIIMS, Delhi, said an increase for specific cancers for certain subsets of the population inside the Fukushima Prefecture is very likely.

“A 2013 report predicts that for populations living in the most affected areas there is a 70 per cent higher risk of developing thyroid cancer for girls exposed as infants, a 7 per cent higher of leukemia in males exposed as infants, a 6 per cent higher risk of breast cancer in women and 4 per cent higher risk, overall, of developing solid cancers for females,” Misra told PTI.

Misra, who has dealt with all types of medical cases, including that of radiation, said Japan could have easily prevented the entire accident.

“The Japanese focused on the prevention principle without paying due attention to the mitigation principle as if it was sure that an accident was impossible. The power unit of the Fukushima plant was built on the basis of a design developed in 1960 and, therefore, the station was not ready for a crisis situation of the 21st century,” Misra said, citing the complexity of such situations.

https://indianexpress.com/article/world/japans-decision-to-release-fukushima-radioactive-water-into-sea-will-cause-disease-along-asian-coastal-belt-experts-7056108/

November 22, 2020 Posted by | Fukushima 2020 | , , , | Leave a comment

Landside tritium leakage over through years from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant and relationship between countermeasures and contaminated water

Abstract

There has been tritium groundwater leakage to the land side of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants since 2013. Groundwater was continuously collected from the end of 2013 to 2019, with an average tritium concentration of approximately 20 Bq/L. Based on tritium data published by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings (TEPCO) (17,000 points), the postulated source of the leakage was (1) leaks from a contaminated water tank that occurred from 2013 to 2014, or (2) a leak of tritium that had spread widely over an impermeable layer under the site. Based on our results, sea side and land side tritium leakage monitoring systems should be strengthened.

Introduction

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident released a large amount of radioactive materials into the environment since 2011. Most were in the gaseous state, released primarily through the atmosphere to the land of eastern Japan and to the north-west Pacific Ocean. The released amount was estimated to be approximately 520 PBq1, with radioactive iodine (mainly 131I), radioactive cesium (134Cs, 137Cs), and noble gases such as 133Xe accounting for most of the released amount. Tritium (3H, T1/2 12.3 y.) was an additional part of the radioactive materials released, but is considered as a “soft”, or low energy, beta emitter. The tritium beta energy is low (max 18.6 keV), and requires large quantities to deliver significant radiation doses, so that the measurement of other nuclear species was prioritized when considering human protection immediately following the accident. Therefore, data on tritium in the environment after the FDNPP accident are still limited in Japan2,3.

Tritium in a boiling water reactor is mainly produced by ternary fission. At FDNPP, 8.51 × 1013 Bq/month at 1.1 MW operation was produced by ternary fission4. Tritium is also produced in reactors by 10B(n, 2α)3H, 10B(n, α)7Li, 7Li(n, α)3H, or 6Li(n, α)3H, 2H(n, γ)3H5.

Cumulate 3H yields in the reactors at FDNPP have been estimated to range from 0.01% to 0.0108%6,7. According to estimates made immediately after the accident in 2011, there were reports that the inventory of 3H at the time of the accident was 1.81 × 1013 Bq8, but according to recent reports by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings (TEPCO), the inventory of 3H immediately after the accident was estimated to be 1.0 × 1015 Bq at Unit 1, 1.2 × 1015 Bq at Unit 2, and 1.2 × 1015 Bq at Unit 3, for a total of 3.4 × 1015 Bq4. As of March 24, 2016, 7.6 × 1014 Bq was in the storage tanks at the FDNPP site, 2.7 × 1013 Bq in the reactor building(R/B), and estimated 1.8 × 1015 Bq was released outside the reactor or in debris (Table 1)9,10.

There are three possible pathways for the release of 3H from FDNPP to the outside: ocean, atmosphere, and groundwater. Among them, direct releases to the ocean and releases to the atmosphere have been reported in detail.

An estimated 0.1–0.5 PBq of 3H flowed into the north Pacific Ocean from the accident6,11. Tritium was detected in the north-west Pacific Ocean off the coast of Hirono town, Fukushima Prefecture 1 month after the accident12.

Investigation of 3H in precipitation may be one of the easiest ways to confirm the release of 3H into the atmosphere. The highest tritium concentration in precipitation was estimated 10 days after the accident at 1342 TU (equivalent to 158 Bq/L)13. A surface water concentration of 3H at 184 (± 2) Bq/L was detected in rice paddy fields at 1.5 km from the FDNPP plant12. Since both reports greatly exceeded the natural 3H level in Japan (1.1–7.8 TU, equivalent to 0.13–0.92 Bq/L) or 6 TU (equivalent to 0.71 Bq/L)2,14, there was no doubt that the 3H was from the FDNPP accident. Also, since the samples were collected approximately 1 month after the accident, the 3H on the ground most likely originated as precipitation from the atmosphere, not via groundwater.

Leaking of 3H through groundwater is difficult to analyze. In this study, we report that 3H above natural levels has been detected continuously in groundwater sampled from 2013 to 2019 on land approximately 30 m from the FNDPP site boundary. A key aspect of this study is that the water examined was groundwater, not surface water. To reveal the hydrogeological origin of the groundwater sources, Sr isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) was also measured as a natural tracer of water–rock interaction and ground water mixing patterns15,16,17,18.

From 2013 to 2019, several countermeasures have been taken at the FDNPP to prevent contaminated groundwater from leaking off site. The relevance will be discussed, including the results of detailed tritium measurements in the water collected inside/outside FDNPP site.

Results

Outflow of 3H into groundwater from FDNPP

Most of the tritium present in the FDNPP was assumed to have been produced by ternary fission. As long as no re-criticality occurs, no new tritium is produced. However, it is estimated that there is 1.8 × 1015 Bq of tritium that has not been identified in the turbine buildings and in contaminated water, in addition to the amount released outside after the accident or the amount in debris10. In Japan, the limit for tritium release into the ocean is 6.0 × 104 Bq/L in a typical nuclear facility, but in the case of the FDNPP, 1500 Bq/L is the regulatory limit for tritium effluent19. Therefore, over 1.2 × 1012 L of water would be required for dilution.

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the nuclear power plant site after the accident.

The land-side water impermeable wall (frozen soil wall) and the sea-side water impermeable wall (steel sheet pile) were installed to surround the circumference of the FDNPP and prevent 3H flow off site. Frozen soil walls block uncontaminated groundwater from getting close to reactors and buildings, while steel sheet piles block potentially contaminated groundwater from spreading into the ocean.

A series of wells were drilled at 35 m above sea level, upstream of FDNPP, to reduce the amount of groundwater flowing under the reactor building, and the well water was constantly pumped (Ground water bypass). The wells were drilled to a depth directly above an impermeable layer inside the plant’s grounds. Figure 2 shows the radioactivity of tritium in groundwater flowing through this bypass from June 2014 to June 2019. The ground water bypass system has 12 wells (No.1 to No.12)20, and the highest concentration of radioactivity was in No. 10 well on the south side. The concentration of 3H on June 2014 was 10 Bq/L, but it exceeded 3000 Bq/L in April 2016 and has been gradually decreasing since then to approximately 1400 Bq/L in 2019. No. 10 well is next to No.11, which also had levels of 3H higher than other wells, at 700 Bq/L as of June 11, 2019. No. 12 is the southernmost well, but unlike No. 10 and No. 11 wells, the tritium levels tended to decrease monotonically from a peak in April 201421.

Groundwater was estimated to flow into the ocean from the mountain side based on ground water flow modeling22.

It was not possible to determine from these data whether tritium-contaminated groundwater was still being released as tritium had already spread before the completion of the several barriers. Contaminated water may still be leaking from FDNPP site even after the barrier was completed23. The fact that tritium has been continuously detected in groundwater from the bypass installed upstream of FDNPP even after the completion of the water barrier (frozen wall) does not mean that tritium in the groundwater flows to the sea. In addition, the radioactivity trends in the neighboring wells vary widely, indicating that groundwater is moving in a complex manner.

The movement of groundwater may be impacted by the removal of the water from the wells. The amount of water removed from the wells has been changed in a timely manner in order to maintain appropriate groundwater level. If the water level was lowered too much, water flow would be induced from the reactor.

In order to evaluate the absolute amount of tritium contained in well water, information such as flow rate would be required, but TEPCO has not disclosed flow rates publicly.

3H radioactivity leakage

The concentration of 3H in the sump water collected at the sites indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 is shown in Fig. 4. The 3H observed in sump water ranged from 15 to 31 Bq/L and was almost constant (average 20 Bq/L). The 3H exceeded the expected natural level (up to 7.8 TU(1 TU = 0.118 Bq/L), 0.92 Bq/L) of 3H, thus it is assumed that the 3H originated from FDNPP. Since the sump water were collected directly from cliffs, tritium in sump water would have passed under the ground of FDNPP site.

In addition, the sump water also contained radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs). The concentration of 137Cs ranged from 3 to 4 Bq/kg, and the ratio of 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity at the time of the accident was almost 1. This also suggests that the water originated from FDNPP site24.

Tritium deposited via the air in surface water is not expected to mix with ground water. No tritium exceeding natural levels was detected in the air and precipitation around the FDNPP during the study period (2013–2019). At the FDNPP, four measures have been taken to prevent surface water from infiltrating into groundwater25..

  1. 1. Grouting of surfaces (to prevent from soaking rainwater into the ground) (from Oct. 2014),
  2. 2. Pumping of water from the sub-drain (from Sep. 2015),
  3. 3. Frozen soil wall around the 4 nuclear plants (from Mar. 2016),
  4. 4. Sea-side impermeable wall (from Oct. 2015).

It was clear that there was no direct correlation with the radioactivity of tritium contained in the leachate compared with the respective construction periods.

No tritium above the natural level was detected in the flowing-wells about 500 m away from the nuclear power plant. (see supplementary data).

The flowing-well water tritium concentration ranged from 0.003 to 0.01 Bq/L and was measured using the ingrowth method. Natural level of 3H in Japan was ranged from 0.13–0.92 Bq/L. Meanwhile the radioactivity of tritium in flowing water was below 0.01 Bq/L. The radioactivity of the water was at least one eighth. It was considered to be at least three half-lives above conservative estimates. Therefore, it was estimated that the tritium in the groundwater from the flowing-well had an age of nearly 40 years.

To read more:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76964-9?fbclid=IwAR2RSEo2gQcULylDpW_P3mnR5yy5AYZ3o-1rY5ZwY2BgIfV6ohYjnYvfLy8

November 22, 2020 Posted by | Fukushima 2020 | , , | Leave a comment