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The Week in Nuclear and Climate News

a-cat-CANCOP21 Bill Gates leads nuclear industry’s publicity drive at COP21.  I smell a Breakthrough Energy Coalition nuclear rat at COP21.  Gates’ nuclear dream doesn’t stand up to critical analysis.  What is needed isrenewable energy DEPLOYMENT, not just research. The global nuclear industry is clearly getting the jitters.

Paris Climate Conference ‘At the Limits of Suicide,’ Commitments Nowhere Near Enough to Miss 2 C. Complaint Filed Against French State Utility EDF-Climate Conference Sponsor for False Advertising. Republic of Marshall Islandsseeks refuge in USA for its climate (and nuclear) victims.

 Global warming is increasing wildfires (and increasing the danger from nuclear facilities). $3.4 Trillion Fossil Fuel Divestment Globally.

A warning to COP21 on dubious safety of China’s nuclear gamble.

UK Government’s Nuclear Plans – Will they work?   Britons fear Donald Trump might use NATO nuclear weapons, if he becomes President.


JAPN. Troubling indications of recurring nuclear criticality at FukushimaDaiichi. Despite bribes offered, 47 Prefectures not keen to host Japan’s 166,000 tons of nuclear waste. ‘NO to nuclear waste dumping’ say 13 Japanese Prefectures.

CANADA Ontario’s Energy Minister announces yet another sweetheart nuclear deal.

GERMANY  expecting nuclear utilities to pay the costs of decommissioning and disposal of radioactive trash.   Germanutility RWE splits, in order to deal with costs of nuclear station closures.

BELGIUM   extending life of nuclear reactors – meets with criticism on this, as nuclear no solution to climate change.

FRANCE sets up Europe’s biggest solar farm: it’s cheaper than nuclear power station. France to spend billions onAfrican renewable energy projects.

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December 4, 2015 Posted by | Christina's notes | Leave a comment

Bill Gates leads nuclear industry’s publicity drive at COP21

did you know that Bill Gates is a co-founder and current Chairman of the innovative nuclear energy company TerraPower? The Washington State-based company launched in 2006 and although the US is unlikely to prove fertile ground for nuclear energy investment in the near future, TerraPower is already well on its way to putting down stakes in China.

logo Paris climate1COP21 Gets A Spark Of Nuclear Energy From Breakthrough Energy Coalition December 3rd, 2015 by  

The Intertubes have been buzzing with news of the Breakthrough Energy Coalition, the latest venture by US billionaire and Microsoft founder Bill Gates. Introduced earlier this week at the COP21 Paris climate talks as a companion to the equally newsworthy Mission Innovation initiative, the new coalition harnesses the dollar power of the Earth’s billionaires to accelerate the clean energy revolution.

Gates climate lie

If your definition of clean energy includes nuclear energy, then you have a lot to cheer about because that seems to be a main focus of the Breakthrough Energy Coalition’s interest. Continue reading

December 4, 2015 Posted by | 2 WORLD, secrets,lies and civil liberties | Leave a comment

UK’s nuclear industry urged to launch a new propaganda drive

buyer-beware-1flag-UKNuclear industry urged to woo public support for ‘low carbon, secure’ energy, Express and Star UK, 3 nuke-greenwashDec 15 “……Lord Hutton, chairman of the Nuclear Industry Association, launched a new drive to engage with the public as plans continue to build new nuclear power stations.

He told the association’s annual conference in London that the nuclear industry had “work to do” to help improve public awareness of nuclear power…….

“There is a world of  opportunity opening up,” he said, adding that a new “concordat” launched today could help change public opinion about nuclear power.

“The industry already engages in public outreach, especially in areas where they operate, or plan to build. This can be through open public consultations or school events, but as an industry we need to get the message to a wider audience, to those people who aren’t in nuclear communities…..

The aim is to take the narrative beyond the media, by encouraging people to be proud of the sector and the work they do, having the confidence to talk to other parents in the school playground, or to family and friends.

Helping the wider public understand what nuclear is, can help change opinion about the sector.”…

December 4, 2015 Posted by | spinbuster, UK | Leave a comment

High cancer levels in those who lived near Coldwater Creek’s nuclear wastes, St Louis County

cancer_cellsFlag-USANuclear waste uncovered along Coldwater Creek; Residents fear higher risk for cancer FLORISSANT, MO (KTVI) – There are clean up concerns for people who believe they’re sick because of Coldwater Creek. A federal agency is reaching out to the community after uncovering nuclear waste along the creek’s banks and beyond.

Coldwater Creek runs through several communities and neighborhoods in north St. Louis County. People in those communities are concerned because of nuclear waste officials say has been found along the creeks banks and beyond. Residents fear waste from work on the Manhattan Project back in the forties has put them and their loved ones at a higher risk for cancer.

Residents say they’ve noted more than 2,000 people with cancer who live or grew up near this body of water.

Authorities say Coldwater Creek was contaminated with uranium residue stored near the airport during the development of atomic weapons decades ago. The Army Corps of Engineers cleaned up that site but the effects of the contamination will take much longer to get rid of.

Now the federal agency for toxic substances and disease registry is reaching out to families, beginning a study to find sick people and document their exposure.

They met Wednesday night and resident have lots of skepticism and concerns about incurable illnesses.

December 4, 2015 Posted by | health, USA | Leave a comment

Ontario’s Energy Minister announces yet another sweetheart nuclear deal

scrutiny-on-costsflag-canadaOntario Clean Air Alliance, Jack Gibbons, Dec 3 This morning Ontario’s Energy Minister, Bob Chiarelli, announced that the Government of Ontario is signing a contract with Bruce Power to pay for the re-building of six of its aging, outdated nuclear reactors.

According to Minister Chiarelli’s preliminary estimate, the project will cost $13 billion. However, according to the actual wording of the Government’s contract with Bruce Power, the final capital cost and price of electricity from the re-built reactors of the project is still to be determined.

In other words, this deal continues the long tradition of leaving ratepayers on the hook for capital cost overruns, whether it is through absorbing debt or paying a fat premium for power or both.

Every nuclear project in Ontario’s history has been approved by politicians on the basis of low preliminary cost estimates. But these estimates, and promises that “this time it will be different,” are just pie in the sky.  Every Ontario nuclear project has gone massively over-budget – on average by 2.5 times.  And the cost overruns have inevitably been passed on to Ontario’s electricity consumers and taxpayers. Minister Chiarelli’s announcement is déjà vu all over again.

Meanwhile, the Government of Ontario has signed more than 21,000 contracts with renewable and natural gas-fired power producers. All of these contracts are fixed price contracts that do not allow the renewable and gas-fired generators to increase their prices if their final capital costs are greater than their preliminary cost estimates. Minister Chiarelli should subject Bruce Power to the same market discipline.

Minister Chiarelli has provided no evidence to demonstrate that re-building the Bruce reactors can keep our lights on at a lower cost than by importing water power from Quebec and investing in energy efficiency and cost-effective Made-in-Ontario green energy. And he has not demonstrated why, at a time when electricity demand is steadily dropping and renewable energy is getting cheaper and cheaper, we would want to lock in inflexible nuclear power until 2060.

This is a 1950s electricity solution that will fit our evolving electricity needs and our changing system like a square peg in a round hole.

The only way we can accurately assess the government’s deal with Bruce Power is to send it to the Ontario Energy Board for a full public review.

Simple assurances that a contract with “fill in the blanks” for costs and prices is good value just don’t cut it any more.

Please contact Premier Wynne and ask her to send the Bruce Power contract to the Ontario Energy Board for a full public reviewto determine if we should remain dependent on high-cost nuclear power for another generation.


December 4, 2015 Posted by | Canada, politics | Leave a comment

A warning to COP21 on dubious safety of China’s nuclear gamble

He Zuoxiu, a leading Chinese physicist, has called China’s plans for a bubble in nuclear reactors “insane.”

China’s nuclear ambitions have the tacit approval of many COP21 participants amid calls for the biggest polluter to forsake coal. But this should be a moment of caution for global nuclear authorities who should be urging China to increase safety standards and emphasize more benign energy sources. Ditto for investors sensing a no-brainer profit opportunity. One reason China considers the nuclear option cheaper than solar, windmill and water sources, He says, is that staffing is sparser than in other nations and cost-cutting is de rigor. Just something for David Cameron to consider as the U.K. prime minister gloats over hosting a Chinese-designed reactor……

Nuclear power, industry cheerleaders claim, is cheap, safe and clean. In theory, perhaps, but ask the 100,000-plus Japanese in the Tohoku region who can’t return home. Or the Fukushima farmers and fishermen who can’t sell their wares. Just some food for thought for officials in Paris this week figuring a comparable scenario near the Yangtze is unthinkable. Think again. 

nuclear-gamblingChina’s ‘insane’ gamble on nuclear power, Japan flag-ChinaTimes, BY , BARRON’S ASIA, DEC 3, 2015 When I contemplate China’s plan to build as many as 135 nuclear reactors, I’m transported back to that harrowing March 2011 week when Fukushima No. 1 was melting down……

 only in the months that followed did we learn how close the world actually came to losing Tokyo. Tepco was preparing to abandon the wrecked facility. Leaving the reactors to melt down unencumbered would have meant the immediate evacuation of 13 million-plus people. On March 15, then-Prime Minister Naoto Kan literally stormed Tepco headquarters and demanded its technicians contain the crisis. Thanks to the government’s collusion with the media, it’s taken years for we in Tokyo to realize we probably owe Kan our lives.

I retrace Japan’s March 2011 because it is as clear and cautionary a tale as Beijing will find as it goes nuclear in a hurry. The number 100, China’s ranking on Transparency International’s corruption perceptions index, tells the story. Continue reading

December 4, 2015 Posted by | China, safety | Leave a comment

Global warming is increasing wildfires (and increasing the danger from nuclear facilities)

wildfire-nukeFlag-USANew research finds that global warming is intensifying wildfires, Guardian, , 3 Dec 15 A new study finds a human fingerprint in growing California wildfire risks A new paper was just published which provides a glimpse into the future of wildfires. The paper is titled “Extreme fire season in California: A glimpse into the future?” It was published as the second chapter of “Explaining Extreme Events of 2014” which is from by the American Meteorological Society and it is available here. The lead-in summary to the article is very much to the point. It states,

The fire season in northern California during 2014 was the second longest in terms of burned areas since 1996. An increase in fire risk in California is attributable to human-induced climate change.

The authors, Jin-Ho Yoon and colleagues make the point that California has been under drought conditions since 2012 and that the drought worsened recently. As is obvious, drought exacerbates the threat from wildfires. Last year, the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection saw many more fires than have occurred in the prior five-year averages……

The authors then project into the future and ask what the current trends portend over the next few centuries. The predicted results are striking. We can expect to see increases in the drought index, the area under extreme threat of fires, and the days of fire danger. The following statement from the report provides a great summary.

The increase in extreme fire risk is expected within the coming decade to exceed that of natural variability and this serves as an indication that anthropogenic climate warming will likely play a significant role in influence California’s fire season…..

December 4, 2015 Posted by | climate change, USA | Leave a comment

USA about to set off a new nuclear arms race – former Defense Secretary Perry

missile-envyFlag-USAFormer SecDef Perry: US on ‘Brink’ of New Nuclear Arms Race, Defense News, By Aaron Mehta December 3, 2015 WASHINGTON — The US is on the “brink” of kicking off a new nuclear arms race that will elevate the risk of nuclear apocalypse to Cold War levels, former Secretary of Defense William Perry warned Thursday.

Perry also called for the breaking of the nuclear triad by dismantling the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) stockpile.

“We’re now at the precipice, maybe I should say the brink, of a new nuclear arms race,” Perry said at an event hosted by the Defense Writer’s Group. “This arms race will be at least as expensive as the arms race we had during the Cold War, which is a lot of money.”

The Pentagon is starting a major overhaul of its nuclear triad, made up of bomber, submarine and ICBM nuclear options. The Air Force is starting work on its Long Range Strike-Bomber (LRS-B) program, a conventional bomber that later could be nuclear-certified; it is also planning a new version of the ICBM. Meanwhile, the Navy is figuring out funding plans for the Ohio-class submarine nuclear replacement program.

In an August assessment, the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments projects that it will cost more than $700 billion over the next 25 years to recapitalize the nuclear triad.

Speaking on Wednesday, Pentagon acquisition chief Frank Kendall indicated the nuclear modernization programs would be protected in the fiscal 2017 budget and remain a priority for the department going forward.

To Perry, who served in a number of Pentagon positions before becoming the 19th US secretary of defense under President Bill Clinton, spending that money is foolish when the US is both short of cash for other programs and capable of a robust nuclear deterrence already.

The risk of nuclear war is exacerbated by the dismantling of the relationship between Russia and the US that had been formed after the fall of the Soviet Union. Without clear military-to-military communication between those two nations, the risk of an accidental conflict increases……

December 4, 2015 Posted by | USA, weapons and war | Leave a comment

UK Government’s Nuclear Plans – Will they work?

scrutiny-on-costsflag-UKNU CLearNews Dec 15 Last month we asked why the Government is persevering with the world’s most expensive power plant ever at the same time slashing support for renewable energy. (1) Renewable energy is going from strength to strength. Solar photovoltaics could provide the same amount of electricity as Hinkley Point C for half the subsidy cost (2) and we could have six times the power-generation capacity for the same money by investing in wind turbines instead of Hinkley. (3) Although the Government’s motivation is still a bit of a mystery – either it thinks we still need baseload; it wants to sustain a national nuclear industrial capability sufficient to maintain the UK’s nuclear-armed status; or it is prepared to pay over the odds to the nuclear industry to avoid democratising the energy industry.

 This month we want to look at how likely the whole nuclear adventure is to go ahead. For all the claims that EDF’s ‘final investment decision’ on Hinkley Point C is a mere formality that will be made in a few weeks, there is more reason than ever to doubt it will go ahead anytime soon. As we pointed out last month the whole deal looks as though it’s stitched together with paperclips and sellotape and could fall apart at any moment.
Under the deal agreed with the European Commission, the Flamanville EPR project must be up and running before the guarantees come into effect. And until that time, the shareholders must provide billions in ‘contingent equity’ to cover the bondholders’ risk, protecting UK taxpayers. And if it is not operating by 2020 the guarantees will expire. (4) What this means, according to The Ecologist, is that there is now a near-zero chance of these guarantees ever actually being taken up. Under the terms of the European Commission’s decision on Hinkley, the UK Government may only be able to guarantee loans. It may not be able to underwrite equity – or capital put into the project by the shareholders. Osborne’s £2 billion promise in Beijing doesn’t appear to be able to go ahead under the terms of the EC decision.

Continue reading

December 4, 2015 Posted by | business and costs, politics, UK | 1 Comment

Green party of Ontario (GPO) strongly opposes nightmare prospect of Liberals rebuilding 6 nuclear reactors

Liberal nuclear dreams are a nightmare for Ontario, Amy Watson, 3 Dec1 5      Efforts to reduce electricity bills and build the renewable energy sector were dealt a killer blow today. Media Release (12/03/2015) Queen’s Park – “It’s a nightmare for Ontario to make a deal to rebuild six reactors at Bruce,” says GPO leader Mike Schreiner. “Spending billions on nuclear will drive up electricity prices with toxic energy.”

logo Greens Ontario

“Why are the Liberals wasting your money on nuclear power that we don’t need without any public oversight or input? This is especially odd after the Auditor General criticized the government for excess supply,” Schreiner adds.

Ontario currently has a surplus of power. The province’s base load generation from 2015 to 2020 will exceed demand according to Ontario’s Auditor General. Excess supply cancels out any financial savings from conservation and energy efficiency programs.

No nuclear project in Ontario’s history has delivered on time or budget. The GPO has collected over 1000 signatures on a petition calling on the government to conduct an independent public review of the costs of and alternatives to rebuilding the Bruce B Nuclear Station and the Darlington Nuclear Station.

“It’s irresponsible for Ontario to spend billions on nuclear when they have access to more affordable, emission free electricity,” says GPC leader Elizabeth May. “The risks are too high to spend money on rebuilding nuclear reactors that threaten the Great Lakes.” Ontario does not have a plan for storing radioactive nuclear waste, nor does it have a public emergency plan to deal with a Fukushima-scale nuclear accident. Canadian taxpayers are on the hook for any nuclear accident that exceeds $1 billion.

Greens continue to oppose nuclear waste dumps that threaten the Great Lakes. The federal Green Party also seeks an amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act to increase maximum insured liabilities from $1 billion to $13 billion, which is the amount for which U.S. reactors are insured.

“We simply can’t leave a legacy of toxic waste and financial debt for our children and future generations,” says Schreiner. “Greens demand an independent public review of the costs of and alternatives to nuclear power.”

The GPO is on a mission to bring honesty, integrity and good public policy to Queen’s Park.

December 4, 2015 Posted by | Canada, opposition to nuclear, politics | Leave a comment

Japan’s PM Abe visiting India to market nuclear reactors

Abe,-Shinzo-nuke-1flag-indiaAhead of PM Abe’s visit, India-Japan racing to seal nuclear pact Jayanth Jacob, Hindustan Times, New Delhi Dec 04, 2015 

India and Japan are working to seal a nuclear pact during the visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe from December 11-13 for the annual summit between the two countries.

 Senior officials said some “distance still needs to be covered” before signing the deal that would give a leg-up to India’s ambitious civil nuclear programme, but maintained the pact is “in the realm of possibility like never before now”.

“We hope it will be a done deal this time. But considering the complex nature of negotiations that mark the civil nuclear agreements till the last moment, we should be guided by caution till the pact is finally sealed,” said a senior official.

Japanese firms play a crucial role in the US and French nuclear industries. An Indo-Japanese pact is crucial for fully realising the ongoing civilian nuclear cooperation India has with these two countries. Japanese forging major, Japan Steel Works (JSW), is a supplier of the critical reactor equipment of reactor pressure vessel for most firms worldwide.

But the sides have to agree upon the text of the agreement that will satisfy both countries. Nuclear issue is a sensitive one in Japan — the only country to have suffered a nuclear attack. For instance, Japan wants explicit commitment on testing clauses —the deal will be off in event of a nuclear test by India. India says this touches upon the issue of ‘strategic autonomy’, which is outside the purview of civil nuclear pact that the country has been negotiating with Japan.

But sources said Japan has stopped pressuring India into signing the non-proliferation treaty (NPT) that New Delhi finds discriminatory.

Abe will visit Varnasai, the constituency of PM Narendra Modi who is likely to accompany him on the visit.

December 4, 2015 Posted by | Japan, marketing | Leave a comment

Britons fear Donald Trump might use NATO nuclear weapons, if he becomes President

flag-UKBritons seek to ban Donald Trump, eliminate nuclear weapons he might use as president,USA election 2016
Oregon Live, Douglas Perry 3 Dec 15
t’s beginning to look like Donald Trump really could win the Republican nomination for president, and the party’s mainstream leaders are starting to panic.

Across the pond, some Britons are way past panic. They’re rallying support to formally ban Trump from the British Isles. And, just in case the businessman/reality-TV star does become the U.S. commander in chief, there’s a separate effort from the Scottish National Party to end Britain’s Trident nuclear-weapon program, noting that the U.S. president is the de facto decider when it comes to NATO countries using nuclear weapons.

“The UK’s independent nuclear deterrent isn’t, I believe, all that independent,” SNP defense spokesman Brendan O’Hara said in Parliament last week. “In reality, it will be an American commander-in-chief who will ultimately decide, and in 18 months time that commander-in-chief could be President Donald Trump.”…….

December 4, 2015 Posted by | UK, USA, USA elections 2016 | Leave a comment

$3.4 Trillion Fossil Fuel Divestment Globally

fossil-fuel-industryfearFossil Fuel Divestment Reaches $3.4 Trillion Globally New Matilda,  By  on December 3, 2015

The President of the Rockefella Brothers Fund sees fossil fuel investments as increasingly risky, and the former Development Minister of France is heralding a “cultural shift” in financial markets. Thom Mitchell reports.

Over 500 funds managing nearly three and half trillion dollars have joined the global fossil fuel divestment movement, a panel of environmentalists and financial heavyweights announced at the United Nations climate change summit in Paris today.

Campaigners spearheading the fast-growing movement at climate advocacy groups and Divest-Invest said that in the past 10 weeks alone more than 100 institutions had promised to ‘divest for Paris’, including the city of Melbourne and the insurance company Allianz.

The $3.4 trillion figure represents funds ‘under management’, not funds invested directly in fossil fuels, and many of the commitments represent only a partial pull-out from polluting energy of at least one form of fossil fuel (coal, oil, or gas).

“Because of their varying degrees of disclosure with these commitments, we don’t have the exact total of the amount divested, but we do know that standard portfolios contain around 3.7 per cent of fossil fuels,” said May Boeve, Executive Director of “But the point here has never been exactly how much is pulled out in that way… and that’s for a simple reason: A growing number of investors, representing a growing amount of capital, do not want to be associated with this industry any longer,” she said.

“It is a rogue industry, and that is what these commitments represent. It demonstrates that investors are taking climate risk extremely seriously.”

The $860 million Rockefella Brothers Fund was one of the first big institutions to divest from fossil fuels, in September last year, and the philanthropic organisations’ President Stephen Heintz told media that since that time the divestment movement had grown from around $50 billion in assets under management, to $3.4 trillion.

“You can see that this movement is rapidly growing, and it’s because of two things: There is a moral imperative to save the planet, and to do so we need to end the fossil fuel era now, and it also makes economic sense,” he said.

“As governments from around the world come together to set the framework in place for moving us quickly into the fossil fuel-free era, those assets are going to become less and less valuable.”…….

December 4, 2015 Posted by | 2 WORLD, climate change | Leave a comment

Welcome to the fantasy world of UK’s Energy Secretary Amber Rudd

Rudd, Amber UKNu Clear News Dec 15 The Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, Amber Rudd, is living in a “fantasy world” where nuclear is affordable and fracking produces useful amounts of gas, according to Richard Dixon, director of Friends of the Earth Scotland. “Aiming to close down coal power stations is commendable but planning to replace them with a new fleet of gas-fired power stations will automatically lock us into a high-carbon power system, guaranteeing we won’t meet UK climate targets,” he added. (1)

In her “Energy Policy Re-Set” speech on 18th November, Rudd announced that the UK will close all coal-fired power plants by 2025 but they will be replaced largely with new gas and nuclear plants rather than renewables. Rudd acknowledged that gas and nuclear power generation would in effect need a government subsidy for building power plants, but insisted they were the most secure energy sources. (2) Meanwhile she is stopping support for renewable energy and energy efficiency even though (or perhaps precisely because) they are being delivered in substantial volumes.
Rudd compounded the fantasy by failing to provide any realistic policies for delivering her objectives, said reader in Energy Policy at Aberdeen University, Dr Dave Toke. (3)
The re-set speech exposed Rudd’s total failure to assemble a coherent energy strategy said Oliver Tickell writing in The Ecologist. It reveals the increasingly certain failure to meet EU renewable energy targets, proposes a new tax on wind and solar generation, and leaves the country facing the real prospect of lights going out in the next decade.
What she presented was a rag bag of missed opportunities, worn out ideas, wishful thinking, disconnected themes and downright bad news – like the prospect of a new tax on wind and solar – that only increase the chances of the ‘lights going out’. Even her headline announcement of ‘an end to coal’ was – while a clever way to confuse environmentalists – not all it seems. Coal power stations still have ten years to run under her proposals. And they would almost all have to close down within that time anyway in order to comply with EU pollution regulations.
Here at the key points from the speech and the subsequent reactions – everything you need to know. ……..

December 4, 2015 Posted by | politics, UK | Leave a comment

In 1999 Pakistan planned to drop nuclear bomb on India

flag-pakistanKargil war: Pakistan planned to drop nuclear bomb on India during conflict, says former CIA officer Emma Henderson , 3 Dec 15 

A former CIA analyst revealed the information in an obituary for Sandy Berger, a former national security advisor to President Clinton. Pakistan planned to deploy nuclear weapons against India during the 1999 Kargil War, according to former top White House official.

The information was revealed after former CIA analyst, Bruce Riedel, wrote an obituary for Sandy Berger who died of cancer on Wednesday. Mr Berger and was a former national security advisor to the then American President Bill Clinton.

The CIA had warned President Clinton of the plans, which formed part of the daily top secret classified briefing on July 4, 1999, when he was scheduled to meet visiting Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

Mr Riedel wrote: “The morning of the Fourth, the CIA wrote in its top-secret Daily Brief that Pakistan was preparing its nuclear weapons for deployment and possible use. The intelligence was very compelling. The mood in the Oval Office was grim.

“Berger urged Clinton to hear out Sharif, but to be firm.

“Pakistan started this crisis and it must end it without any compensation. The president needed to make clear to the prime minster that only a Pakistani withdrawal could avert further escalation.

“Sandy knew Clinton better than anyone, his natural inclination was to find a deal. This time, no deal was possible, it must be an unequivocal Pakistani climbdown.

“It worked. Sharif agreed to pull back his troops. It later cost him his job: the army ousted him in a coup and he spent a decade in exile in Saudi Arabia. But the risk of a nuclear exchange in south Asia was averted.

“It was Berger’s finest hour.”

The Kargil war took place along the Pakistan-India Line of Control (LOC) in Ladakh, in the northern Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

The infiltration of Pakistani armed forces into Indian Territory, led by General Ashraf Rashid initiated the conflict.

The Indian army managed to recapture the majority of the Indian side of the LOC.

December 4, 2015 Posted by | Pakistan, weapons and war | Leave a comment