The News That Matters about the Nuclear Industry Fukushima Chernobyl Mayak Three Mile Island Atomic Testing Radiation Isotope

USA’s Energy Secretary Moniz promoting nuclear industry for all he’s worth

revolving-Moniz-Moniz: Congress Should Authorize Interim Nuclear Fuel Storage, Morning Consult, JACK FITZPATRICK   |   OCTOBER 24, 2016 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz warned Monday that Congress and businesses need to act with more urgency to work out a medley of challenges in promoting nuclear power.

The United States is on track to experience a wave of nuclear plant retirements around 2030. …… Because raising capital and making the necessary business decisions on nuclear power is a slow process, there are only about five years left to start relicensing before many nuclear plants close. If more nuclear plants can extend their licenses to run for 80 years rather than 60, that would be “a very big deal” in terms of keeping nuclear power available, Moniz said.

This is important because the lack of a clear solution for storage of spent strandednuclear fuel creates a “significant headwind” for opening new nuclear facilities, Moniz said. He called on Congress to pass legislation creating an interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel.

Moniz previously told a Senate Appropriations subcommittee the department might be allowed to store nuclear waste at a privately managed facility without congressional approval.

Even so, Moniz said Monday that it would help if Congress acted on the issue. “If Congress acted to give us the authorities — and whether public or privately held storage — we could be having a pilot facility running in not much more than five years,” he said…..

“I believe that consolidated storage, sometimes called interim storage, is absolutely essential,” Moniz said. “No matter when a geological repository is realized, interim storage should be part of the system.”……

October 27, 2016 Posted by | politics, USA, wastes | Leave a comment

Poor prospects for completing a Japna-India nuclear co-operation deal

When Modi Flies To Japan, Bleak Chances For Long-Pending Nuclear Deal Outlook,  Tokyo will recognise New Delhi as de facto N power with the deal. But it wants, in writing, a verification mechanism to check fuel diversion, an end to deal in case of testing, and signing of CTBT

RAJESWARI PILLAI RAJAGOPALAN, 25 Oct 16 When Prime Minister Narendra Modi travels to Japan in mid-November for a bilateral annual summit, he will carry a baggage of expectations about a long-pending India-Japan nuclear deal and possible agreements on defence cooperation, particularly the US-2 amphibious aircraft.

The nuclear deal has been straddling the fences, certainly, not for lack of political will but a variety of domestic factors at play, particularly in Japan.

In December 2015, the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his Indian counterpart announced an in-principle decision to cooperate on civil nuclear matters which would facilitate export of Japanese civil nuclear technology to India.

The joint statement stated that the two Prime Ministers welcomed the agreement “for cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and confirmed that this agreement will be signed after the technical details are finalised, including those related to the necessary internal procedures”.

But why haven’t both the countries yet put pen to paper?……..

It is important to see what is driving Japan to consider nuclear commerce with India, a country that has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).  If it does, it will be a first for Japan.  If the nuclear agreement is signed, it would amount to Tokyo accepting the de facto status of India as a nuclear weapon power. …….

Japan’s history will make it difficult for it to accept this and develop a full-fledged nuclear cooperation agreement.  This will especially be the case due to Japan’s domestic context where there is a large public antipathy to nuclear weapons.

Japan’s general anti-nuclear sentiment will continue to be a stumbling block in realising the full potential of the relationship in this regard.  The fact that the bilateral negotiations on nuclear cooperation have gone on for several years is indicative of how lukewarm Japanese sentiment is to this type of cooperation. …….

Toshiba Westinghouse the deal is important for more than one reason. Signing of the India-Japan nuclear agreement will pave way for the operationalisation of India’s agreement with Westinghouse, a US unit of Toshiba Corporation.

But the negotiations have gone on for so long that New Delhi may be beginning to lose interest.

October 27, 2016 Posted by | India, Japan, politics international | Leave a comment

Climate change brings skin diseases to new regions

Climate change is shifting areas of skin disease concern by Reuters, 21 October 2016 As the planet warms, many bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites can survive in areas where they haven’t been found before

By Kathryn Doyle Oct 21 (Reuters) – Climate change is bringing certain skin diseases and other illnesses to regions where they were rarely seen before, according to a recent research review.

Dermatologists should keep these changing patterns of skin diseases in mind when making diagnoses, say the authors, who analyzed specific disease shifts in North America.

As the planet warms, many bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites can survive in areas where they haven’t been found before, the review team writes.

In the U.S., for example, the incidence of the tick-borne Lyme disease increased from an estimated 10,000 cases in 1995 to 30,000 in 2013, and the area where it occurs keeps expanding from New England north into Canada as the ticks find their preferred habitat expanding.

“In places like Canada, now there are ticks that carry Lyme disease farther north than doctors would ever expect to see that,” Dr. Misha Rosenbach of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia told Reuters Health said in a phone interview.

The range of Valley Fever in the southwest U.S. is spreading in a similar way, he said.

Viruses like dengue, chikungunya and Zika are transmitted by mosquitoes originally from Africa and Asia, which have now spread widely throughout North America as the mosquitoes can survive further and further north.

“We are seeing a much wider spread northward for some of these formerly tropical diseases that are now in Texas and Florida,” Rosenbach said.

Seventeen of the warmest years on record occurred within the last 18 years, largely due to combustion of fossil fuels and destruction of rainforests, the authors write in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Water warming and flooding can also give rise to skin threats not previously typical of certain areas, the authors note. Ocean warming increases jellyfish populations, and Portuguese man-of-war now swim along the southeast U.S. coastline where they once did not, for example.

Parts of North America, particularly the Great Lakes, should expect substantially greater rainfall and therefore more outbreaks of waterborne disease as well.

Increasing temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico contribute to the increased cases of illness from consuming raw oysters.

Another skin-related consequence of climate change is skin cancer: as ozone is depleted, the risk of skin cancer goes up. A two-degree temperature increase could raise skin cancer incidences by 10 percent each year, the authors write.

The dermatologic consequences of climate change may not all be negative – you could argue that if temperatures keep rising, some mosquito habitat will be dried out due to drought and some disease ranges may shrink, Rosenbach said.

When doctors see patients with a fever and a rash, he added, “what you suspect” as the diagnosis “depends on where you are.”

“It’s important to remember that what people learned 20 years ago or 10 years ago in medical school can be subject to rapid change,” he said. “The bottom line is it’s important to keep an open mind about possible diagnoses.”

SOURCE: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

October 27, 2016 Posted by | 2 WORLD, climate change | Leave a comment

Carbon dioxide at record levels, UN warns

‘New era of climate change’: carbon dioxide at record levels, UN warns, SBS, 25 Oct 16   The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has passed an ominous milestone, ushering the planet into ‘a new era’ of climate change, the UN said Monday.  For the first time on record, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere averaged 400 parts per million (ppm) in 2015, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said in its latest Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.

CO2, the main greenhouse gas driving climate change, has previously passed the 400 ppm threshold on certain months in specific locations but never on a globally averaged basis, WMO said.

The UN agency also reported that CO2 concentration rates had “surged again to new records in 2016” and predicted the annual average would “not dip below (400 ppm) for many generations.”

WMO chief Petteri Taalas said “the year 2015 ushered in a new era of optimism and climate action with the Paris climate change agreement.

“But it will also make history as marking a new era of climate change reality with record high greenhouse gas concentrations,” he added in a statement.

The CO2 concentration rate for 2014 was 397.2 ppm, just short of the 400 ppm mark that some climate activists once deemed unthinkable……..

October 27, 2016 Posted by | 2 WORLD, climate change | Leave a comment

Climate change could spark the world’s next financial crisis

Businesses should expect more regulation due to climate change,  , Climate change could spark the world’s next financial crisis, according to Paul Fisher, who retired this year as deputy head of the Bank of England body which supervises the country’s banks.

“It is potentially a systemic risk,” Fisher said Monday in an interview in Sydney. A sudden repricing of assets as a result of climate change “could be the trigger for the next financial crisis,” he added.

Fisher, a 26-year-veteran of the U.K. central bank, pointed to the renewed fall in sterling earlier this month, after the government set out a timetable for leaving the European Union, as an example of the way that prices can shift suddenly. “That is exactly the sort of event you might get with climate change,” said Fisher, formerly deputy head of the U.K.’s Prudential Regulation Authority.

 Signs that governments are growing increasingly serious about tackling climate change suggest that businesses need to be ready for greater regulation, Fisher said.

China and the U.S. agreed at the Group of 20 meeting in Hangzhou last month to ratify the Paris accord designed to limit global warming, bringing two of the world’s largest emitters of carbon pollution on board with an agreement to control temperature increases. A paper presented to the Hangzhou G-20 meeting by the U.K.’s Cambridge Centre for Sustainable Finance urged financial institutions to improve the way they assess climate risks.

“You don’t need to believe in climate change, you don’t need to believe that it is man-made,” Fisher said. “You just need to believe that governments are going to do stuff and that is going to affect your business. And then it is a material risk.”

Risks associated with climate change come both from the effect on valuations of the transition toward a lower carbon economy, as well as from the cost of adapting if global warming isn’t checked, according to Andrew Gray, an investment manager at AustralianSuper, the country’s largest pension fund. “Climate change is a genuine investment risk,” Gray said at a Citigroup Inc. conference in Sydney last week.

 Fisher said there’s a possibility of unexpected moves in financial markets as a result of climate change. He warned of the chance of a “system-wide repricing of assets happening quite suddenly.”

October 27, 2016 Posted by | 2 WORLD, climate change | Leave a comment

Nuclear power co-operation between USA and China cools, with arrest of energy consultant

US nuclear secrets trial cools co-operation with China Arrest of an energy consultant spurs concern over racial profiling,   by:  in Beijing and  in Washington

Allen Ho was still reeling from his arrest during a conference in Atlanta, Georgia, when armed Federal Bureau of Investigation agents began interrogating the nuclear energy consultant about his work in China, without any lawyer present.

That business involved hiring retired US nuclear engineers and consultants to advise China General Nuclear Power Corp, the state-owned company that plans to invest in an £18bn reactor in the UK.

Mr Ho, born in Taiwan and a US citizen since 1983, was charged with violating a statute designed to prevent American scientists from helping other countries develop an atomic bomb. The case comes during an era of unprecedented nuclear co-operation between the west and China, but also a time of growing trade friction and accusations of cyber crime and espionage.

 After his arrest in April, Mr Ho’s imprisonment for six monthsin a maximum security cell in Tennessee has chilled Chinese technical co-operation with the international nuclear industry and raised accusations of racial profiling in the US.

Along with Mr Ho, CGN was also indicted on charges of producing “special nuclear material” outside the US without the required approval from the US Department of Energy.

The company said in an emailed statement that it “has long been adhering to the principle of lawfulness and compliance in all our business operation and international exchanges and will carry on following such a principle”.

Wary of being indicted if they step foot on US soil, CGN executives have since skipped meetings run by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Asme), which sets international standards for everything from school heating boilers to nuclear reactors

This is an issue because engineering decisions made in China affect the world’s reactor fleet. China is the furthest ahead in constructing the European Pressurized Reactor destined for Hinkley Point in the UK as well as the AP1000, an American-designed reactor under construction in China and the US. And under bilateral accords CGN and other Chinese groups will supply components for US and UK reactors.

“China is the only country that can provide the information at present” for the AP1000, said Zhang Qiang, Asme’s chief representative in China. Other forms of international co-operation continue.

 Mr Ho does not deny helping CGN improve operations at its nuclear plants but his defence insists that is a far cry from making material for nuclear weapons. Frank Wu, chairman of the Committee of 100, an advocacy group, said the indictment had inflamed fears of “racial profiling” in the Chinese-American scientific community.

The engineers Mr Ho employed told the FBI that they shared only publicly available information with Chinese nuclear companies, according to court documents. Some helped inexperienced Chinese engineers decipher technical manuals at Daya Bay, the French-designed reactor that supplies electricity to Hong Kong.

Others advised on developing a nuclear fuel process so that CGN could avoid paying hefty royalties to the French. They have not been publicly charged.

The case against Mr Ho will rest on testimony from a Taiwanese-American consultant he employed who secretly pleaded guilty 18 months ago to selling subscription-only research reports on nuclear power to China………

Two prosecutions of US citizens of Chinese birth have already unravelled. The Department of Justice in March dropped all charges against Sherry Chen, a hydrologist accused of illegally sharing information about US dams with Chinese contacts. Months earlier, prosecutors abandoned an espionage case against Xi Xiaoxing, acting head of Temple University’s physics department.

“There’s nothing about this case that’s normal,” said Peter Zeidenberg of Arent Fox, Mr Ho’s lawyer who also represented Mr Xi. “There’s an undercurrent running through all these cases and it’s because of these individuals’ association with China.”

Additional reporting by Luna Lin

October 27, 2016 Posted by | secrets,lies and civil liberties, USA | Leave a comment

Renewable energy breaks new records

Keep it in the ground: renewable energy breaks new records Adam Vaughan Environment editor, The Guardian

Last year renewable energy accounted for more than half of new power generation worldwide, for the first time  
Think of China and energy today, and you probably think of coal. But as the chief of the International Energy Agency told me recently, that’s changing. In years to come, wind turbines and vast solar arrays could become the first things that spring to mind.

Last year, for the first time, renewable energy accounted for more than half of new power generation worldwide, as we report today. China is expected to build more than twice that global amount in the next five years, driven by its thirst for more electricity capacity, public anxiety over air pollution and the need to fulfil its climate change pledges.

The world is changing, and Europe is no longer the big driver of green energy growth that it once was. “In the next five years, the People’s Republic of China and India alone will account for almost half of global renewable capacity additions,” says the IEA in a new report.

But even with all this growth, renewables are only forecast to provide just over a quarter of the world’s electricity by 2021. There’s still a long way to go.


October 27, 2016 Posted by | general | Leave a comment

How the USA’s NRC regulations work


Safety by Intent

Merriam-Webster defines regulation as “an official rule or law that says how something should be done” and as “the act of regulating something.” The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 created the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and tasked the agency with both saying how things should be done and regulating to ensure that those things get done right. How does the NRC discharge its statutory responsibilities?……

The NRC uses regulations backed by standard review plans, regulatory guides, and official endorsements of industry guides to clearly articulate its regulatory expectations. The NRC uses publicly available inspection procedures to clearly convey how it plans to gauge compliance with its regulatory expectations. Such efforts literally put the NRC and owners on the same pages when it comes to nuclear power plant safety requirements.


The safety regulations developed by the NRC are readily available online in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Title 10 contains dozens of parts tailored to specific aspects of nuclear safety. For example, Part 100 defines the criteria applied when locating a nuclear power reactor. Part 20establishes the requirements that protect workers and the public from radiation. Part 50 governs the licensing of nuclear power plants. Part 73 covers the security measures needed to protect nuclear plants from radiological sabotage. And so on.

For example, Section 100.10 in Part 100 defined “Factors to be considered when evaluating sites” for proposed nuclear power reactors. Applications for reactor operating licenses had to describe the site’s seismology, meteorology, hydrology, geology and the evaluations concluding these physical characteristics posed no undue hazard to the reactor.

Regulatory Guides

The applicants for licenses and certificates from the NRC and the holders of licenses and certificates issued by the NRC have the responsibility of complying with the agency’s regulations. The NRC supplemented its regulations with Regulatory Guides that helped applicants meet their obligation through increased understanding of the regulatory expectations……..

As reflected by the name, a regulatory guide is not born as a regulatory requirement. It can be adopted as a requirement when an owner commits to its provisions to comply with a regulation. But owners are entirely free to comply with the regulation through methods other than those described in regulatory guides. To do so, the owners need only convince the NRC that the alternate methods are comparable to, or better, than the methods in the regulatory guides…….

Standard Review Plan

The Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800 for nuclear power reactors) was developed to help the NRC’s reviewers determine whether applications for operating licenses properly showed compliance with applicable regulations. This “answer key” also helps applicants conduct all the homework necessary to prepare high quality submittals.

The Standard Review Plan is a valuable complement to the regulations and regulatory guides. Regulatory guides identify the NRC’s expectations for factoring meteorology into reactor siting and design decisions. The Standard Review Plan identifies the spectrum of regulations that include meteorological considerations. The regulatory guides define the tornado wind speeds and the snowfall amounts the NRC expects to be considered; the Standard Review Plan describes how these parameters are to be applied in judging the integrity of plant structures and in the radiological protection of the public following an accident………

Inspection Procedures

The NRC conducts numerous inspections at each operating nuclear plant under its Reactor Oversight Process. The owners are notified in advance about upcoming inspections and the inspection procedures are available online………

Prior to joining UCS, I worked for awhile as a consultant in the engineering department for a company with two operating nuclear reactors. Engineering had issued a procedure for coatings applied to piping and equipment for protection against rusting and degradation. The procedure prohibited applying a certain epoxy to equipment inside containment. So, during a refueling outage workers unbolted a component, moved it outside containment, and applied the epoxy coating. They then moved the component back inside containment and reconnected it.

The letter of the procedure had been satisfied, but not its spirit. The reason the epoxy was banned was that following certain accidents, it could react chemically with fluid discharged into containment with harmful consequences. Fortunately, the mis-applied epoxy coating was detected and corrected before the reactor restarted from the outage.

This benign example illustrates the potentially more serious consequences that can occur when the NRC and plant owners are not on the same pages. The NRC can set the safety bar at an appropriate height to adequately manage a risk, but owners need to see the bar and understand all its associated fine print in order to facilitate compliance.

The NRC’s readily available regulations, regulatory guides, standard review plans, and inspection procedures guard against miscommunications and misinterpretations that can undermine safety.


Disaster by Design UCS’s Disaster by Design/Safety by Intent series of blog posts is intended to help readers understand how a seemingly unrelated assortment of minor problems can coalesce to cause disaster and how effective defense-in-depth can lessen both the number of pre-existing problems and the chances they team up.

October 27, 2016 Posted by | safety, USA | Leave a comment

NuGen Partner Says: Renewable Energy is the New Norm – OK – So ….STOP MOORSIDE!


Roe deer, Moorcide Roe Deer on the 1400 acres earmarked for The Biggest Nuclear Development in Europe – #StopMoorside!

Dear Friends,

Thank you for all your actions to Stop Moorside, the biggest nuclear development in Europe.

Now one of the partners behind the proposal – Engie has said that: *Renewable energy is the new norm*

So, even Engie’s chief executive, Isabelle Koche believes that nuclear is literally a dead end.

Please write to Engie and tell them to get out of the NuGen project.

There is a sample letter below.

Many Thanks! Marianne

Email Contact form here:

or Address Here: Isabelle Kocher, Group Chief Executive Engie, 40 Holborn Viaduct London, EC1N 2PB

For the Attention of Isabelle Kocher,

Group Chief Executive Officer of Engie,

Nearly 11,000 people have signed an ongoing petition opposing the proposed Moorside nuclear plant in Cumbria. 

The Copeland area’s 2016 Local Plan said that there should be no…

View original post 161 more words

October 27, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

October 27 Energy News


Science and Technology:

¶ Global wildlife populations have fallen by 58% since 1970, a report by the Zoological Society of London and WWF says. The Living Planet assessment, suggests that if the trend continues that decline could reach two-thirds among vertebrates by 2020. Habitat loss, wildlife trade, pollution, and climate change are among causes. [BBC]

Wildlife populations down by nearly 60% since 1970  (Photo by Roger Leguen / WWF) Wildlife populations down by nearly 60% since 1970
(Photo by Roger Leguen / WWF)


¶ Gamesa, India’s leading renewable energy company, has announced a new 130-MW solar project with Atria Power to be commissioned in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh by March 2017. Gamesa will handle the complete value chain of the project including 96 units of Gamesa E-1.37MW hybrid cooled solar inverters. [Indiainfoline]

¶ Vattenfall has generated the first power from its 228-MW Pen y Cymoedd wind farm in Wales. The Swedish company said the 76-turbine project, which is…

View original post 741 more words

October 27, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

TVA Watts Bar Nuclear Workers Frightened of Raising Safety Concerns: US NRC Meets with TVA Officials on Nov. 3rd

Mining Awareness +

The Nuclear side of the TVA appears hell bent on destroying the legacy of good done by the early Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and its hydroelectric dams. The TVA even looked more modern in 1942 than today and it actually was: Renewables 74 years ago. Hydroelectric power. The Nazis and the Russians won because they made TVA go nuclear.
Construction of the Douglas Hydroelectric Dam in Tennessee (TVA), 1942, A. Palmer, Farm Security Adm.
Construction of the Douglas Hydroelectric Dam in Tennessee (TVA), 1942, A. Palmer, Farm Security Adm.

“Chilled Work Environment” is the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s poorly chosen euphemism for workers frightened to report problems. A nuclear power station requires an air conditioned chilled environment, especially in the summer. One hopes that the workers would be somewhat chilled, as in calm.

Are the workers afraid to report about why Watts Bar 2 is not producing power?

TVA belongs to the US government. Whoever is responsible for it needs to do house-cleaning…

View original post 234 more words

October 27, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

As Arctic Ocean Ice Disappears, The Global Climate Impacts Intensify #Auspol


Arctic Ocean sea ice melt as seen from the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Cutter Healy.
The top of the world is turning from white to blue in summer as the ice that has long covered the north polar seas melts away. This monumental change is triggering a cascade of effects that will amplify global warming and could destabilize the global climate system.
The news last week that summer ice covering the Arctic Ocean was tied for the second-lowest extent on record is a sobering reminder that the planet is swiftly heading toward a largely ice-free Arctic in the warmer months, possibly as early as 2020.

author Peter Wadhams ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Peter Wadhams, professor emeritus of ocean physics at Cambridge University, is a sea ice specialist with 46 years of research on sea ice and ocean processes in the Arctic and Antarctic. In more than 50 expeditions…

View original post 1,166 more words

October 27, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

October 26 Energy News



¶ “Is clean coal a lost cause?” • After decades of research and billions of dollars of funding, it seems time could be running out for ‘clean coal.’ With the latest large project backed by the US DOE ready to fail, Dr Gareth Evans hears from the rising number of voices proclaiming clean coal to be a lost cause. [Power Technology]

Clean coal? Is clean coal a lost cause?


¶ The Prince of Wales is joining an Anglo-French government initiative to improve the condition of global soils. Ministers from both governments are meeting the prince to discuss how to improve soil health and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from farming. Ministers will debate how to store more carbon in soils. [BBC]

¶ Edinburgh is celebrating the completion of what is thought to be the largest community-owned rooftop solar framework in the UK, after 1.4 MW of solar…

View original post 619 more words

October 27, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

America’s Pre-Rotted “New” Nuclear Reactor Not Working: Power at Zero Percent; Commercial Ops for Watts Bar 2 Lasted Only Four Days! Apparent SCRAM

Mining Awareness +

America’s pre-rotted “new” nuclear reactor has been listed by the US NRC as having power status of zero percent for several days. Commercial operation for Watts Bar Unit 2 lasted for only four days or less. While the media lauded this antiquated structure as a new nuclear reactor going online, they haven’t bothered to notice that it’s offline. The US NRC hasn’t bothered to explain why it’s at 0% power output. To drop from 100% to 0% suggests that there was an urgent SCRAM. Watts Bar Unit 2 even had a fire at the end of August. If people are smart they will indeed scram as far away from this antiquated nuclear reactor as possible – the origin of the word according to the NRC historian. Nuclear reactors are not made to just turn off and on, either, because it adds additional stresses to materials.

Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 2…

View original post 4,569 more words

October 27, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

“We Have Nowhere to Go” — Sea Level Rise is Devouring the Coast of West Africa

GarryRogers Nature Conservation

GR:  Wild plants and animals are like poor people–they have no place to go either.

“I am very afraid for the future of this place. Sooner or later we will have to leave, but we have nowhere to go.” — Buabasah a resident of Fuvemeh, a West African town being swallowed by the sea.

“The coastal zone of West Africa stretches for 4,000 miles from Mauritania to the Congo. It includes highly populated regions surrounding low elevation cities and towns in such African nations as Gabon, Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea, The Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Cameroon, Liberia, and Ghana. Most industrial activity and food-growing is located near the coast of these nations — accounting for 56 percent of GDP for the region according to the World Bank. And coastal population concentrations in regions vulnerable to sea level rise are very high. In all about 31 percent of the 245 million…

View original post 33 more words

October 27, 2016 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment