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NUCLEAR POWER and RADIOACTIVE WASTES – theme for January 2020

The world faces a dangerous and ever more pressing problem – nuclear wastes.

The logical steps to deal with nuclear wastes are:

1. Stop making the stuff.  Close down the commercial and military nuclear reactors that produce plutonium and other long-lived radioactive materials

2. Choose the “least worst” option to dispose of the existing nuclear wastes   – (a) Interim storage of radioactive wastes into above ground containers (b) Deep burial underground permanent repositories.

The nuclear lobby, desperate to stave off the death of its industry, comes up with grand promises of new Generation IV systems, reactors that will reprocess, “recycle” plutonium wastes into Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX)  to fuel for other Gen IV reactors.  At the end, highly toxic radioactive wastes are still produced.

And all this – despite the enormous costs, the very dangerous transport of plutonium, the risks of terrorism, the increased risks of weapons proliferation.

The nuclear lobby’s cries for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR)s, Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR)s,  Molten Salt Reactors (MSR)s, Gas Cooled Fast rectors (GCFR)s, Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors (SCFR)s, Lead Cooled Fast Reactors (LCFR)s –  all desperate and conflicting cries for their own salvation, rather than any solution to wastes, costs, climate change, energy needs.

The worry is that the nuclear lobby might win, by manipulating governments and populations into buying their expensive and dangerous new toys –  because nobody really wants a nuclear waste tomb in their area.

The trouble is – nuclear cemeteries, however unappealing, are still the least worst option.

December 28, 2019 - Posted by | Christina's themes

14 Comments »

  1. Your article makes a very good point.

    Here are some other articles of possible interest:

    No Safe Dose – Japan’s Low-Dose Radiation Disaster
    Rense, 7-9-12
    http://rense.com/general95/no-safe-dose.htm

    Tepco’s Disinformation
    June 27th, 2012
    http://dissidentvoice.org/2012/06/never-ending-load-of-gobshite-from-the-lying-bastards-of-tokyo-electric-power-company/

    Humanity at the Height of Folly: Nuclear Power and Earthquake Zones
    June 20, 2012
    http://www.activistpost.com/2012/06/humanity-at-height-of-folly-nuclear.html

    The Arsonist Investigating The Fire
    5-31-12
    http://rense.com/general95/tokyoars.html

    “Fifty Year Battle” To Save Japan Rages On
    April 7th, 2012
    http://dissidentvoice.org/2012/04/tepcos-cheapskate-tactics-put-world-at-risk/

    Japanese Food Radioactive
    March 10th, 2012
    http://dissidentvoice.org/2012/03/japanese-food-radioactive/

    Japan’s Nuclear Disaster: Radiation Still Leaking, Recovery Still Years Away?
    September 19th, 2011
    http://dissidentvoice.org/2011/09/japan%E2%80%99s-nuclear-disaster-radiation-still-leaking-recovery-still-years-away/

    Censorship in Japan: The Fukushima Cover-up
    June 29th, 2011
    http://dissidentvoice.org/2011/06/censorship-in-japan-the-fukushima-cover-up/#more-34287

    Earthquake and Nuke Fatigue
    April 13, 2011
    Counterpunch
    http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/04/13/earthquake-and-nuke-fatigue/

    Comment by Richard Wilcox | September 30, 2012 | Reply

  2. I voted against nuclear power in California when I had the chance in the mid-1970’s. It was a Proposition on the ballot at that time. I was working as a secretary/receptionist for a talent agency in West L.A., and I remember trying to explain to the mailman who came every morning to the office that the nuclear industry had no idea what to do with nuclear waste, and that the whole industry was stupid and dangerous. This was before the internet, and I actually learned what was up from reading the L.A. Times and Mother Jones magazine, which was brand new way back then. Now, 35 years later, the whole world is dying from this stuff, and it’s going to get worse. I am glad I am over 60. I have no hope for the future. The brain-dead rule, and the brain-dead vote.

    Comment by Helene Thomson | September 30, 2012 | Reply

  3. […] June 12, 2014 Posted by Christina MacPherson | Christina’s themes | 2 Comments […]

    Pingback by LA ENERGÍA NUCLEAR Y EL PROBLEMA DE LOS RESIDUOS RADIOACTIVOS « MARIA URIZAR, consecuencias de Fukushima, Chernobil,...apagón informativo, censura y mentiras. | June 27, 2014 | Reply

  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Fusion

    Those guys claim their Lead-cooled MTF Fusion Reactor only emits Helium as exhaust.
    I’m skeptical, not that past performance in related industry is any guarantee of future results (except for that related industry!!!).


    http://www.generalfusion.com/generator_design.html

    Perhaps some of the technology needed for LCFR is better applied for fusion instead.

    Still, if she ever blew, it could be a big lead-oxide white cloud, eh? Drooling could become commonplace for any (surviving) locals, possibly. Er, there’s probably much better ways to boil water, or lead, aren’t there? 🙄

    Comment by Dud | June 29, 2014 | Reply

  5. HI Christina — just discovering your terrific compilations…clear commentary and wonderful use of graphics! Thank you! going to send folks here…doing a power point for the national convention (USA) of Veterans for Peace and will reference your images for timelines here. Thanks for the shout out on women (and girls) and radiation…under reported, and something every parent / woman needs to know! — Mary Olson

    Comment by Mary Olson | July 21, 2014 | Reply

    • Thanks so much, Mary. That means a lot to me, as I have been relying on your stuff, especially about women. http://www.nirs.org/radiation/radhealth/radiationwomen.pdf
      In fact, we did meet, ever so briefly, at the symposium in New York last year. My real name is Noel Christina Wauchope. As I was working in a conservative institution, I had to pick my middle names, Christina Macpherson, to run my blogs. Now that I have left that job, I can freely use my real name.
      Right now, I am very concerned at the machinations going on in USA about the EPA changing their radiation safety rules. But I bet that you are right up with all this.

      Comment by Christina MacPherson | July 22, 2014 | Reply

  6. If we keep generating nuclear wastes at the rate we are doing, and building unnecessary bombs, and building more dangerous reactors, we are in trouble. If we do not shut down rectors that will surely meltdown soon as well, trouble. We will be one huge radioactive wasteland like kazhakstan. We will have no viable genome like belarus in a short period of time. Places like New Mexico with tipp and los alamos are probably already there. Nevada is worse than a lot of people will admit.

    Comment by heather simmons | February 11, 2016 | Reply

  7. Ken, Doug
    I tried to send you an email, but the address was not recognised – neither of the 2 email addresses that I have for you.
    I am so sorry to learn that you are so very ill.
    Are you in hospital. Is someone taking care of you?
    I wish that I could be helpful, but how to? from here in Australia
    Thinking of you,

    Christina

    Comment by Christina MacPherson | January 18, 2020 | Reply

  8. Maybe take my comments on this article down so my family is not targeted

    Comment by ken | January 20, 2020 | Reply

    • Oh dear – a shame to have to do that. But I will – could you reply to this comment first?

      Comment by Christina MacPherson | January 20, 2020 | Reply

  9. Some of What The USA Military , Corporations and government did to us on top of detonating several open air nuclear bombs on us.

    My government had a missile base 60 miles from Uranium and downwinder hell in Utah. My governemt also detonated four atomic bombs under the river that went through my town, in the llate 1960s..
    My government and military contractors launched hundreds of single and multisatge missiles from Green River Utah to White Sands new mexico from 1965 to 1970. The missiles went to white sands New Mexico, which is approximately 900 miles from Green River Utah. Their trajectory took them over southern Utah National parks, the navajo, zuni, ute hopi and pueblo nativ,e reservations, and most of north and central New Mexico. White sands New Mexico is 925 miles from Green river utah. White sands new mexico is 50 miles from alamagordo New Mexico . Alamagorgo is where the fist Atomic bomb, in the world was detonated. The cold war, multibillion dollar Missile project tested single and multistage rockets and biological warfare payloads.

    They tested payloads

    The Green-White sands missile project was to test missile paylods over the south west usa. You can find sections of missiles that failed in the 900 mile stretch, from Green ricver to white sands nm. They launched hundreds of missiles and rockets Some of the missile-rockets failed and crashed into the desert, long before reaching their south central New Mexico destination clasw to the mexico usa border. There are missile carcasses and stages from southern utah to in the Canuyonlands national Park, The Grand Gulch National Nation Monument, in The Four Corners Area of the USA where Utah, Colorado and Arizona intersect. Missile parts and from failed missiles can also be found in the New Mexico and Utah Navajo reservations. There detritus of missiles can found by Farminton New Mexico , west of Santa Fe New Mexico, east of demming New mexico and by Socorro nm . The initial stages of multistage rockets are mostly in utah.

    The military and governernment tested several biological weapon payloads, in the missiles-rockets that went from Utah to white sands new mexico.The army , and corporate contractors, put Biological Warfare payloads on missiles. with viruses and bactria in them. They tested the a weaponized version of thw Hanta Virus. They tested Hearty bacterial spores, like anthrax as well. They launched the biological warfare payloads with viruses and bacteria in special mediums to
    test the stability of the most Hearty virus and bacterial spore-systems in missile carrier systems.
    The biological warfare medium-containing–payloads were on rockets that went from Green River Utah to White sands new mexico from 1965 to 1970.

    Hannta virus did not exist in the United States of America in Humans, until 1990. It was weaponized by the United States government and corporations in the 1960s. The first Hanta Virus casuaties recorded in the USA were a family of Navajos in New Mexico, in 1992. Hanta virus is has now apread to mice vectors in all parts of the United States of america. It is epidemic in the USA . I know because I once worked for an agency that treated and tracked it.
    The 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak was an outbreak of hantavirus that caused the first known human cases of hantavirus disease in the United States. It occurred within the Four Corners region – the geographic intersection of the U.S. states of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona – of the southwestern part of the country in the spring of 1993. This region is largely occupied by Native American tribal lands, including the Hopi, Ute, Zuni, and Navajo reservations, from which many of the cases were reported.

    “The Discovery of Hantaan Virus: Comparative Biology and …
    by KM Johnson · 2004 · Cited by 10 · Related articles
    Nov 1, 2004 · They became infected by tissues of antigen-positive wild mice of that single species. … Dr. Lee named it “Hantaan,” after a small river near the border between the 2 Koreas, where human infection was isolated and endemic in the 1950s”

    FROM “Brief Histories of Three Federal Military Installations in Utah: Kearns Army Air Base, Hurricane Mesa, and Green River Test Complex” (PDF). Utah Historical Quarterly. Utah State Historical Society. 34 (2). Spring 1966. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2013. Retrieved September 12, 2013. More than 100 employees of the [Atlantic Research]
    The Utah Launch Complex was a Cold War military subinstallation of White Sands Missile Range for USAF and US Army rocket launches. In addition to firing Pershing missiles, the complex launched Athena RTV missiles with subscale warheads of the Advanced Ballistic Re-entry System to reentry speeds and impact at the New Mexico range. From 1964 to 1975 there were 244 Green River launches, including 141 Athena launches and a Pershing to 281 kilometers altitude. “Utah State Route 19 runs through the Green River Launch Complex, which is south of the town and eponym of Green River.”

    Comment by xxx | January 21, 2020 | Reply

  10. Nuclear danger in wildfires: why the silence on spontaneous ignition, (pyrophoricity), of uranium-Continued

    JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
    PYROPHORETIC SUBSTANCES

    Pyrophoric materials

    White phosphorus, the original “phosphor”
    Alkali metals Sodium, Cesium 137, Strontium 90
    Metals URANIUM, hafnium, thorium, Plutonium
    Metals and alloys in bulk form (cerium, plutonium)
    Metal hydrides : Radiostronium and Radiocesium hydride, uranium trihydride, plutonium oxide
    Neptunium

    Why doesn’t anyone care about pyrophoricity and the speading of unquenchable wildfires in populated areas, in industial Countries? Especially around large nuclear complexes like INL, Hanford, Mayak? Fukushima and Chernobyl?
    The current wildfires in Australia are some of the worst catastrophe in History. I have been reading about Uranium and rare earth mining, close to the Amazon. The mining and contamination of areas around and, in the Amazon. The contamination maybe a more important factor in the wildfires there, than climate change.

    The human encroachment via clearing of forests, heavy metal mining, rare earth mining and uranium mining are certainly important factors.

    There is a 70 percent chance that there will be another major nuclear reactor accident, in the world, in the next 2 years. So far they have been occuring on an average of about every 10 to 15 years. They have become much worse.

    Most reactors are well beyond their initial licensing dates. More than 30 years old. Corroded, embrittled, cracked with poor to no backup. Poor supervision in countries like the USA, Ukraine, and eastern Europe.
    The reopened Japanese reactors are old and damaged. Many are in earthquake zones.

    Accelerated climate change, is significantly increasing the risk of nuclear reactor catastrophe.
    ONE OR TWO major nuclear explosions, meltdowns and fuel fires, probably will occur in the USA or europe in the next 2 years.
    They will spread, an unimanigable swath of pyrophoric and highly toxic, hi level radionuclides across the USA or in europe. Wildfires in populated swaths of the USA will surely accelerate dramatically within a few years, of nuclear reactor catastrophes in the USA . The large areas that burned at Santa Susana and INL fires sent radionuclides across Socal from Santa Susana and 6 states, from the 900,000 acre INL fire. These fires occured in the past 2 years. They have been all, but ignored.

    FROM IAEA PDF on Uranium PDA

    “Uranium metal can be melted by any of several different techniques. However, because uranium is very reactive when heated in air, melting must be done either under a protective inert atmosphere or in a vacuum.17
    Uranium and its alloys are considered difficult to machine and almost
    all machining of uranium results in some sparking or burning because of its pyrophoricity.

    Health and safety considerations must be carefully considered when using uranium because of its high toxicity and pyrophoricity. The main hazard to health occurs where finely divided particles can become airborne and inhaled. For this reason, vents and fume hoods should be used, or the workers should use respirator equipment to avoid inhalation.
    Uranium is the heaviest naturally occurring element that exists in recoverable amounts, averaging about 4 ppm in the earth’s crust”

    The use of pyrophoric phosphorus to fire bomb dresden, in world war 2 killed 120,000 people and burned Dresden to the ground. Guess what, Uranium is more pyrophoric than phosphorus . It takes much less to start fires and keep them burning with even trace amounts of radionuclides. The government will not talk about it. Nobody will talk about it primarily because of the implications for storage of nuclear waste, what can happen after nuclear catastrophes, and because of the militaries ongoing uses, of depleted Uranium that is highly pyrophoric and radioactive.

    Nasty wildfires are common in moist industrial areas now. Especially in nuclear countries. In popluated areas on the coasts of Australia, where they mine and process millions of tons of uranium and take it to ports to ship and the world. Where they tested nuclear bombs that left pyrophoric radionucide residue. Coastal regions that now have wildfires.
    In the French Riviera and Greece. California. Scandanavia. China. Chernobyl. Japan.
    There is a great amount of uranium residue in the environment from fracking.
    Reactors emit pyrophorics. They emit pyrophoric radionuclides in places like Palos verde in arizona. Fukushima and chernobyl are the largest mass emitters of radionuclide toxins and pyrophoretic radionuclides in history
    Large swaths, across the world.

    There is uranium mining, nuclear fuel production, depleted uranium and isotope production, from nuclear waste. Flintlocks for drought and climate change related wildfires. Methane release in the arctic with trace radionuclides.

    Massive wildfires, in and around the worst pryrophoric, radionuclide contaminated-nuclear reservations in Russia and the USA in the past three years. Some going on in siberia right now, that started by nuclear areas. No one will talk about it.

    Pyrophorics can ignite spontaneously. They burn white hot, like the thorium, in the thorium lantern mantles, usedfor their pyrophoretic properties. Radionuclides are by far and above, the strongest pyrophorics known to man. They include most classes of radionuclides: actinides like thorium, uranium, transuranics like plutonium, alkali metals like cesium 137. They are highly reactive, in trace amounts. No media attention about it at all, except in episodic incindents like WIPP and the plutonium fires ar Rocky Flats. No mention of pyrophorics at Santa Susana or INL

    Nasty Wildfires in Australia

    Massive wildfires in populated areas, on the coasts of Australia, where people in cars, burn masses of hyrocabons, with uranium, radium and thorium traces in them. They also mine and export large amounts of Uranium in Australia. There are chemical factories, petroleum on the coast of Australia Refineries that create natural radioclide waste with, high concentrations of heavy metals and the natural radionuclides thorium, uranium, radium.
    In the French Riviera and Greece. California. Scandanavia. China. Chernobyl. Japan. Wildfires that are serious threats to populations.
    There a uranium residue, in the environment from fracking in industrial countries.
    There are fires around reactors and other nuclear facilities. There was a major fire in the Ukraine, by a hi-level nuclear waste-containment facility.

    There were pyrophoric fires, at Idaho, Nevada, and Washington-low-level nuclear waste facilities in the past 10 years, not  associated with INL. The government and media will not talk about the pryrophoric-radionuclide induced fires.

    There was a pyrophoric radionuclide fire at WIPP. WIPP is one of the largest plutonium repositories in the world. WIPP had to be closed down in 2013 from an intense, plutonium pyrophoric fire.  Remember that trace amounts of radionuclides can set off and keep a wild fire going. Like the small Uranium town in utah, Where a quarter of the town had a wildfire from uranium that had accumuated in the soil for 60 years. There have been multiple pyrophoric-radionuclide wildfires in an eastern Washington at low level nuclear waste processing facilities. In Nevada, In Idaho  at lolevel uranium and radionuclide waste facilities, in the past ten years.

    Rocky flats plutonium trigger plant by denver, was where 2 pyrophoric plutonium fires contaminated half of Denver, with plutonium residue. The plutonium fires occured at rocky flats in the 1980’s. They were pyrophoric plutonium fires.
    You hear little to nothing, about radionuclide-pyrophoricity and fires or, wildfires. Dont ya know its national security and thhe media wouldnt want people to know the truth.
    Reactors emit pyrophoric radionuclides.
    There is uranium mining, nuclear fuel production, depleted uranium and isotope production, from nuclear waste. Massive flintlocks for drought and climate change related, wildfires.

    Some of the recent, worst,  wildfires are common around nuclear reservations in Russia, siberia and the USA. The wildfires in those areas, put large amounts of radionuclides into the air .
    Santa Susana
    Mayak
    Siberia
    Central Idaho
    Idaho National Laboraory 900,000 square mile wildfire
    Australian coasts
    Chernobyl wildfires in 2013
    South of France
    China
    Alaska

    Nasty wildfires are common in moist industrial areas now. Especially in nuclear countries. In popluated areas on the coasts of Australia, where they mine and process millions of tons of uranium and take it to ports to ship and the world. Where they tested nuclear bombs that left pyrophoric radionucide residue. Coastal regions that now have unprecedented wildfires.

    Pyrophorics can ignite spontaneously. They burn white hot, like the thorium, in the old mantle lanterns. Radionuclides are by far and above, the strongest pyrophorics known to man. They include most classes of radionuclides: actinides like thorium, uranium, transuranics like plutonium, alkali metals like cesium 137. They are highly reactive, in trace amounts. No media attention about it at all, except in episodic incindents like WIPP and the plutonium fires ar Rocky Flats. No mention of pyrophorics at Santa Susana or INL.

    There is a great amount of uranium residue, in the environment from fracking.
    There are fires around reactors and other nuclear facilities. There was a major fire in the Ukraine, by a hi-level nuclear waste-containment facility.

    Remember that trace amounts of radionuclides can set off and keep a wild fire going. Like the small Uranium town in Utah , Where a quarter of the town had a wildfire from urannium that had accumuated in the soild for 60 years. There have been multiple pyrophoric-radionuclide wildfires in eastern Washington low level nuclear waste processing facilities. Fires at lolevel nuke waste facilities n Nevada, In Idaho  in the past ten years.
    You do not hear anything about radionuclide-pyrophoricity and fires or wildfires. Dont ya know its national security and thhe media wouldnt want people to know the truth.

    They always neglect the fact that most radionuclides are pyrophoric especially uranium, plutonium, radioactive lead, thorium, radium, iridium, and alkali metals like strontium90, cesium137, rsodium. The world is flooded with mined, fracked and artificial radionuclides since they stared playing with nuclear. Minute amounts of thorium and uranium dust and other radionuclide can set off wildfires and fires. Pyrophoric plutonium caused the rocky flats mess and WIPP fires
    Look at the INL wildfire that did 900,000 acres. The Wipp fires that happened when plutonium ignited kitty litter. The Santa Susana Fire that burned half of ventura county north of Los Angeles 2 years ago. One of the worst of many wildfire in southern California.
    The Chernobyl WildFires, the Mayak Wildfires, the Hanford wildfires. There are many more. The primary reason depleted uranium is used in ammunition is because of the heat it generates on impact, from it’s pyrophoricity

    Journal of Physical Chemistry

    Pyrophoricity

    The pyrophoricity of hydrides and oxides forming on the surface of plutonium can cause it to look like an ember under certain conditions.

    Several classes of radionuclides are pyrophoric. Actinides. Alkali Metals: Cesoum 137, Strontium 90. Plutonium and Uranium are very Pyrophoric in trace amounnts.
    A pyrophoric substance (from Greek: πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, ‘fire-bearing’) is a substance that ignites spontaneously in air at or below 54 °C (129 °F) (for gases) or within 5 minutes after coming into contact with air (for liquids and solids). Examples are iron sulfide and many reactive metals including plutonium and uranium, when powdered or thinly sliced. Pyrophoric materials are often water-reactive as well and will ignite when they contact water or humid air. They can be handled safely in atmospheres of argon or (with a few exceptions) nitrogen. Class D fire extinguishers are capable of dealing with pyrophoric fires.

    Charles J (1966). “The Reaction of Pyrophoric Radioactive lead and lead with Oxygen”. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 70: 1478–1482. doi:10.1021/j100877a023.
    ^ DOE | Office of Health, Safety and Security | Nuclear Safety and Environment | Uranium, retrieved 3 September 2013; archived on 24 August 2010.
    ^ DOE | Office of Health, Safety and Security | Nuclear Safety and Environment | Plutonium, retrieved 3 September 2013; archived on 28 September 2010

    Radionuclides are flintlocks for many of the wildfires that plague the climate changing world now

    Guarenteed wildfires around nuclear reservations in Russia and the USA from pyrophiric uranium and other pyrophoric radionuclide. No one will talk about it.
    The worst wildfires in southern california history started at the radionuclide santa susana site and spewed radionuclides across Las Angeles county.
    Pyrophorics ignite spontaneously. They burn white hot, like the thorium, in the old mantle lanterns. Radionuclides are by far and above, the strongest pyrophorics known to man. They include most classes of radionuclides: actinides like thorium, uranium, transuranics like plutonium, alkali metals like cesium 137. They are highly reactive, in trace amounts. No media attention about it at all, except in episodic incindents like WIPP and the plutonium fires ar Rocky Flats. No mention of pyrophorics at Santa Susana or INL.
    Wildfires are common in coastal industrial ares Especially in nuclear countries. In populated areas on the coasts of Australia, where people in cars, burn masses of hyrocabons, with uranium, radium and thorium traces in them. They also mine and export large amounts of Uranium in Australia. There are chemical factories, petroleum on the coast of Australia Refineries that create natural radioclide waste with, high concentrations of heavy metals and the natural radionuclides thorium, uranium, radium.
    In the French Riviera and Greece. California. Scandanavia. China. Chernobyl. Japan. Wildfires that are serious threats to populations.

    There are fires around reactors and other nuclear facilities. There was a major fire in the Ukraine, by a hi-level nuclear waste-containment parking station.
    You do not hear much about radionuclide-pyrophoricy and fires or wildfires.
    Reactors emit pyrophoric radionuclides in water starved deserts like Palos verdes in arizona. Accounts for recent unprecedented waildfires in the arizona deaert. There have been unprecedented wild fires around chernobyl and fukushima post nuclear castastrophes. Now there are massive wildfires in australia. Many of the worse in uranium tainted areas, downwinder and nuke test sites.

    (PDF)Ecological Considerations of Depleted Uranium Munitions From The US Army
    https://fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/la-5559.pdf
    1972 hansen

    excerpt from pdf

    “DEPLETED URANIUM MUNITIONS IN TER-
    RESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS
    A. Wildfires During Military Exercises
    The pyrophoric properties of DU make it extremely
    effective in combat use where the ecological consequences
    of wildfire are hardly a consideration. A similar philos-
    ophy probably exists for training purposes, although fire
    control is a greater concern near populated areas or where
    arid conditions produce flammable environments.
    Fire is a most important limiting factor in ecosystems
    of forest and grassland regions of temperate zones and in
    tropical areas with dry seasons. Fire is a major hazard, and
    has been for centuries, of the normal climate in most of
    the terrestrial environments of the world. This has
    produced biotic, fire-adapted communities uniquely
    suited to a region, such as the long-leaf pine forests on the
    coastal plain of the southeastern United States.3
    Manage-
    ment of controlled environments by prescribed burning
    has been intensively investigated in this southeastern
    area.” Control of vegetative cover by fire is only one
    consideration in the total ecosystem response. Animal
    populations respond in various ways to such procedures,
    as shown in studies of wild turkey management.5
    In
    southeastern US pine forests, controlled fire is an indis-
    pensable tool to maintain and manage turkey populations;
    however, it must be used wisely to ensure that associated
    animal populations are not jeopardized and thai all popu-
    lations achieve a balance. Differing responses of various
    species to habitat fires are found in all ecosystems, such as
    soil insects and their vegetative cover in desert steppe
    vegetation,6
    caribou and their crucial lichen winter ranges
    in arctic areas,7
    and muskrats and waterfowl in various
    marsh habitats.8

    9
    Less obvious effects of fire include the
    induction of mortality factors in aquatic situations,
    mostly due to chemical changes in the water produced ‘<y
    burned vegetation.10
    The above examples recognize the ecological con-
    sequences of fires caused by the pyrophoric properties of
    DU munitions. The degree of importance these con-
    sequences attain will depend upon the situation (wariime
    or training), the bio£'ographic region(s), climate, season
    of the year, and several other factors. Each situation must
    be judged independent"

    Comment by Pyrophoresis | January 24, 2020 | Reply


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