Uyo — The Akwa Ibom State Leaders Caucus has rejected plans by the Nigerian Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) to site a Nuclear Power plant in Itu local Government Area of the state. The group attributed their rejection of the Nuclear Power plant to disastrous consequences that failure of nuclear plants had brought in other parts of the world.
The leaders’ caucus questioned why Nigeria, which they said had a perennial incompetence in matters of safety and security, could venture into such a risky project, while countries with known competences, like Germany, Italy, USA, Russia and Japan are shutting down such plants.
Nigeria: Community leaders oppose nuclear plant site, Star Africa, APA July 3, 2015 The Leaders Caucus of the Akwa Ibom State in south-eastern Nigeria has rejected plans by the Nigerian Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) to site nuclear power plant in Itu Local Government Area of the state.
He wondered what gave Nigeria, where perennial incompetence in matters of safety and security has become legendary, the impetus to venture into such a risky project, while countries with known competences like Germany, Italy, US, Russia and Japan are shutting down such plants.
Okon said that gambling with such risky issue by Nigeria was a clear and deliberate invitation to disaster of monumental proportions.
Declaring Akwa Ibom as grossly unsuitable for such projects, the leaders noted that the location of nuclear plants all over the world is done far away from human habitation, noting that Akwa Ibom is small and compact, even as there is no distance across the state that is beyond 50km……….http://en.starafrica.com/news/nigeria-community-leaders-oppose-nuclear-plant-site.html
NGO warns FG That Setting up a nuclear power plant in Nigeria would be suicidal, FunGrade, 29 June 15
Mr Nnimmo Bassey, the Director, Health of Mother Earth Foundation (HOMEF), said setting up a nuclear plant in Nigeria would be suicidal given the high level of operational challenges it would face. Bassey said this in Abuja while presenting a paper titled: “Risks and deaths as workers generate wealth’’ organised by HOMEF’s Sustainability Academy on Health and the Extractive Sector Workers. The News Agency of Nigeria reports that the programme was sponsored by the UNDP and the Federal Ministry of Environment in collaboration with HOMEF. He said that the setting up of a nuclear plant was suicidal because of the high technical and environmental demand associated with handling radioactive materials. “Uranium and nuclear power plants are inseparable. ”
Nigeria has found it difficult to run simple hydroelectric and thermal power plants. “It would be suicidal to install nuclear power plants here,’’ Bassey said. The director said the proposal to site such a facility in Akwa Ibom would not be advisable because of the serious environmental implication. “And to think of locating one in Akwa Ibom State is nothing but adding insult to injury in an already highly polluted Niger Delta. “It will also be a time bomb set against the workers,’’ he said. Bassey said that the sustainability academy was aimed at highlighting the fact that workers and communities were at the frontlines of exposure to toxic chemicals that often result in fatalities. The director further said that more than 2.3 million workers worldwide had been exposed to work-related diseases or accidents annually. He said that more than one million extractive industries workers die annually of toxic chemical across the globe.
Ban nuclear from Paris talks, green groups urge http://www.edie.net/news/6/Ban-nuclear-industry-from-Paris-talks–urge-green-groups/ 17 June 2015, source edie newsroom Brad Allen, An international coalition of clean energy groups have launched a new campaign asking for the nuclear power industry to be barred from the UN climate talks in Paris.
The Don’t Nuke The Climate campaign is being led by the Netherland’s World Information Service on Energy (WISE), and supported by green groups from Germany, Russia, France, Austria and the US.
WISE director Peer de Rijk explained: “We are calling on 1,000 civil society organisations to join us for a campaign to block the nuclear industry’s lobby activities at COP21 and instead ensure the world chooses clean energy. It is the only real climate solution.”
Under the Kyoto Protocol, nuclear energy is excluded from the possible solutions available to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But de Rijk claims the industry is “in collaboration with certain nations, lobbying for their dangerous and polluting technology to be sold as a climate-friendly option during the Climate COP21”.
As an initial step for the campaign, the organising groups today launched an international petition, designed to lobby world leaders in support of nuclear-free clean energy.
The coalition is also planning a “mass demonstration” in Paris on the 12 December, in the midst of the UN conference.
“Nuclear power is in no way a climate solution,” said Michael Mariotte, the president of the US-based Nuclear Information and Resource Service, which is part of the campaign.
“Nuclear power remains dirty, dangerous and expensive; is not carbon-free; and encourages nuclear proliferation.”
No UK groups have yet joined the campaign, but the technology remains divisive.
According to the World Nuclear Association, the UK currently has 16 reactors generating about 18% of its electricity and all but one of these will be retired by 2023.
Three new generation plants – including the station at Hinkley Point – are expected to start coming online in 2023, with an estimated 19GW of capacity.
Green groups called the planning approval for the Hinkley power plant a “world record sell-out” and a “shocking decision”, but Circular Ecology’s Dr Craig Jones warned that nuclear provided valuable electricity to the UK, and if it was abandoned, the void would likely be filled by coal and gas.
|Voices growing in Gangwon Province against slated nuclear reactors http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_national/696544.html Jun.18,2015|
“In a popular referendum about building nuclear reactors that was carried out in October of last year, 85% of the citizens of Samcheok voted against the plan. A majority of Samcheok citizens are united in their position that building nuclear reactors poses an unacceptable threat to their lives and safety,” a speaker at the press conference said.
“The government means to push ahead with the construction of the nuclear reactors because of its stubborn insistence that nuclear power is the business of the state and is not subject to a popular referendum, but in the end no government can defeat its own people. We will join with the people of Samcheok to block the nuclear reactors,” said Shim Gi-jun, head of the NPAD’s Gangwon Province branch.
On June 16, Lee Yi-jae, 56, Saenuri Party representative for the cities of Donghae and Samcheok; Kim Yang-ho, mayor of Samcheok; and Chung Jin-gwon, head of the Samcheok city council met with Moon Jae-do, Second Vice Minister of Trade, Industry and Energy, in the committee room of the National Assembly‘s Trade, Industry, and Energy Committee and asked that plans to build nuclear reactors in Samcheok be omitted from the 7th Power Supply Plan, which will be confirmed at the end of this month.
“Delaying the final decision about the location of the nuclear reactors for three years until 2018 will provoke conflict and division between different regions. There is precedent for this, since Deoksan Village was removed from the list of possible nuclear reactor sites in 1999 and the construction of a nuclear waste disposal facility was shelved in 2005. I hope that public receptiveness will be given the highest priority and that the plans to build a nuclear reactor in Samcheok will be scrapped,” Lee said.
The Committee Fighting against the Samcheok Nuclear Reactor recently issued a statement of its own responding to the government’s announcement of the 7th Power Supply Plan. “The nuclear reactor construction plan should not be slyly delayed until 2018 but should be struck from the 7th Power Supply Plan at once. If the plans to build nuclear reactors are not revoked, we will step up our fight against the government,” the committee said.
The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy is set to submit the 7th Power Supply Plan to the National Assembly around June 20. If the plan is approved, it will be officially announced around the end of the month.
By Park Soo-hyeok, Gangwon correspondent Please direct questions or comments to [firstname.lastname@example.org
Petilla: PHL still not ready for nuclear power June 1, 2015 LINGAYEN, Pangasinan—The operation of the mothballed Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) and the putting up of a similar one in any part of the country is next to impossible considering the mind-set of the Filipino people.
This in essence, is the opinion of Energy Secretary Carlos Jericho L. Petilla in reaction to the report that former Pangasinan Fifth District Rep. Mark Cojuangco, who is eyeing to run for governor of the province, has not abandoned his earlier call for the operation of the BNPP.
There was also a report that in order to prove that a nuclear plant is safe, he is willing to let one nuclear plant built next to his house in Sison, Pangasinan. http://www.businessmirror.com.ph/petilla-phl-still-not-ready-for-nuclear-power/
Japan Inc not as keen as Abe government on nuclear power – Reuters poll TOKYO | BY TETSUSHI KAJIMOTO AND YUKA OBAYASHI Sun May 24, 2015 Two-thirds of Japanese companies want and expect a lesser role for nuclear power than the government is targeting, a Reuters survey showed, reflecting persistent concerns about safety four years after the Fukushima disaster.
All of the country’s 43 operable reactors are offline – the result of a tougher safety regime introduced after an earthquake and tsunami hit the Fukushima plant, causing meltdowns, explosions and plumes of radioactivity.
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s government last month proposed bringing nuclear energy back to account for 20-22 percent of the nation’s electricity mix by 2030, seeking to reduce Japan’s huge reliance on imported fossil fuels and lift the economy out of two decades of anaemic growth.
But slightly more than two-thirds of firms in the Reuters Corporate Survey, conducted May 7-19, saw levels of less than 20 percent as appropriate and realistically achievable given strong public opposition.
“Some nuclear power stations may resume operations, but it will be difficult to expect as many restarts as the government and utilities want,” a corporate manager at a machinery company wrote……..
A Reuters analysis last year indicated that as few as a third, and at most about two-thirds, of Japan’s reactors are ever likely to pass today’s more stringent safety checks and clear other seismological, economic, logistical and political hurdles needed to restart.
A third of reactors back online would be roughly equivalent to nuclear energy accounting for 10 percent of the country’s electricity supply while two-thirds would be about 20 percent…….
Most public opinion polls have put opposition to nuclear restarts at about two-to-one over support.
Local residents and activists are seeking to block the restart of all five reactors certified as meeting new safety standards from the Nuclear Regulation Authority – making it hard to predict the timing of resumption of operations.
The restart of one, the Takayama plant owned by Kansai Electric Power (9503.T), has been delayed indefinitely after a court sided with activists. The first restart could be the Sendai plant owned by Kyushu Electric Power (9508.T) but the regulator has said company plans for that to happen in mid-July are too optimistic as it needs to finalise its review……http://uk.reuters.com/article/2015/05/24/uk-japan-companies-nuclear-idUKKBN0O910A20150524
Deep Ground Repository for nuclear waste has local support and regional opposition, Radio Canada International By Carmel Kilkenny | email@example.com Monday 18 May, 2015 , The Deep Ground Repository (DGR) proposed for Kincardine in Southwestern Ontario, will be the topic of many conversations over this annual Victoria Day holiday weekend….
A kilometre from the shore of Lake Huron,
The Bruce power station is the largest operating nuclear power plant in the world, with 4,000 employees drawn from several small communities around it. The majority here support the DGR, which will store over 200,000 cubic metres of low and intermediate radioactive waste from the Bruce, as well as the Pickering and Darlington nuclear power stations.
But farther away, and in the large urban centres of Toronto, and Chicago, the DGR is the subject of a divisive debate with thousands signing petitions and filing official objections to the proposal. The biggest complaint is the proximity of the DGR to the Great Lakes basin.
At just over a kilometre from the shore of Lake Huron, many fear the future of 40 million people, on both sides of the Canada-US border, could be at stake in the event of an accident or an unforeseen event.
Mayor Keith Hobbs of Thunder Bay, Ontario, a vocal opponent, said in a recent interview with the London Free Press, “If you contaminate that source, we’re done. That’s life, that’s life itself.”……http://www.rcinet.ca/en/2015/05/18/deep-ground-repository-for-nuclear-waste-has-local-support-and-regional-opposition/
The bicommunal Cyprus Anti-Nuclear Platform, in cooperation with environmental organisations from Turkey and the support of the European Greens, organised a conference in the buffer zone to discuss the negative impact a nuclear power plant would have in the Mediterranean region and signed a declaration urging Turkey to abort plans for the construction of the plant.
They also called for the formation of a Network for a Nuclear Free Mediterranean.
Key-note speaker at the event was Rebecca Harms, co-president of the Greens–European Free Alliance group in the European parliament. Also present were Cypriot MEPs, Environment Commissioner Ioanna Panayiotou, Green Party chairman George Perdikis and members of non-governmental organisations.
Speakers said that apart from the negative impact the power plant will have on the surrounding environment, it could also be a nuclear accident waiting to happen.
Turkey is no stranger to earthquakes as it sits on a seismically active area within the zone of collision between the Eurasian Plate and both the African and Arabian Plates.
Harms said that nuclear danger should not be added in an earthquake zone. She added that earthquake-prone countries like Greece and Italy do not have nuclear power plants and neither should Turkey.
The declaration states the opposition of “the inhabitants of the Mediterranean region… to the establishment of a nuclear power station in Akkuyu, Mersin for the sake of our safety and due to our responsibility to protect the living organisms and the ecosystem in the Mediterranean”.
It adds that Turkey’s plans to construct the nuclear power plant are outdated since they date back to the 1970s and that “not only does Turkey’s decision pose a risk to the future of the Mediterranean, but it also contravenes the Mediterranean Action Plan, established under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)…, and the Barcelona Agreement… where Turkey is a member”……..http://cyprus-mail.com/2015/05/09/groups-unit-to-call-for-halt-to-turkish-nuclear-plant/
a hashtag or a petition is a good start, but it must be followed up with engagement towards further action.
The hashtag crusaders, The Saturday Paper, MIKE SECCOMBE, 9 May 15 …….Should those concerned about effecting real progressive change worry that simple identity politics is supplanting real commitment?
Or have the means of expression simply changed? Maybe the hashtag is the digital age equivalent of the bumper sticker, and the online petition the equivalent of the street march. Maybe younger people are just as committed – in many cases marginally committed – as they ever were.
If that’s the case, the future for progressive change organisations is perhaps not so dire. Certainly more people respond to hashtags than ever put stickers on their cars. Proportionally, many more people have signed on to GetUp! petitions in Australia than rallied in Central Park in 1982.
“Change.org has 2.8 million people who have used their platform, so it’s not a small proportion of the population at all,” says Rebecca Wilson, deputy director of the Centre for Australian Progress, the organisation hosting the Melbourne conference……
On the other hand, she says: “Every organisation that has an email list will tell you their membership is heavily female and middle aged or older. So it’s partially true that it’s often older people engaging. But they have the time and the resources.”
The evidence is ambiguous. What is increasingly clear, though, is that while modern means of communication such as social media can be a powerful tool, they are not a substitute for more traditional means of activism. And those seeking change face the same old problem of turning short-term protest into long-term campaigning.
“It’s too reductionist to say that there is clicktivism and then there is legitimate advocacy,” says Anat Shenker-Osorio, a US-based communications consultant specialising in cognition and linguistics.
There is, she says, “some truth” to the criticism that if you make something too easy you encourage a glib and superficial response. “But the issue is actually a lack of human-to-human engagement. The thing that sustains motivation is the creation of connection and community. The trouble with online actions is that they don’t engender that connection.
“We have for too long focused on protest instead of movement building.” Continue reading
irresponsible to ship potentially hazardous plutonium and uranium to other countries, possibly causing environmental damage or landing the material in the hands of terrorists.
Opponents of nuclear power are now asking that Taiwan not send nuclear waste overseas.
Opposition Mounts as Taiwan Plans to Ship Nuclear Waste Offshore VOA News, Ralph Jennings May 08, 2015 TAIPEI— Taiwanese officials want to ship the island’s nuclear waste offshore as spent fuel accumulates at two older power plants, but the plan faces opposition from activists and the legislature, putting it on hold.
The two oldest of Taiwan’s three nuclear power plants are running out of space for spent fuel. The build-up of waste prompted government-run Taiwan Power Company to call in February for bids from companies overseas capable of removing the fuel, neutralizing radioactive material and helping to dispose what’s left. Firms in France, Japan, Russia and Britain are technically able to do the work, though none had tendered bids.
A month later the power company retracted its call for bids to process 1,200 bundles of spent fuel because parliament declined to approve a $367 million disposal budget. Taiwan Power spokesman Lin Te-fu said the company will try to persuade legislators again to allocate the money or risk a storage crisis at the island’s first nuclear plant……..
While some legislators believe the overseas disposal cost is too high, leaders in Taiwan’s popular movement against nuclear power cite other risks. They call it irresponsible to ship potentially hazardous plutonium and uranium to other countries, possibly causing environmental damage or landing the material in the hands of terrorists. Taiwan-based Green Citizens Action Alliance researcher Hsu Shih-ya fears the waste would contaminate foreign soil.
Hsu said the kind of disposal method proposed would cause a high level of radiation pollution surrounding the treatment plants. She said her group does not want Taiwan’s pollution to be transferred to other countries, which would be a very immoral matter.
Opposition to Taiwan’s nuclear power crested last year after more than 200,000 activists marched in the streets, leading the government later to call off plans to open a $9.3 billion fourth plant. …..
Opponents of nuclear power are now asking that Taiwan not send nuclear waste overseas. Hsu Hsin-hsin, spokeswoman for the Central Taiwan Antinuclear Action Alliance, said the plan would cost too much without answering calls to end nuclear power……. http://www.voanews.com/content/opposition-mounts-as-taiwan-plans-to-ship-nuclear-waste-offshore/2759529.html
More communities expected to join fight to stop nuclear waste repository near Kincardine http://www.theobserver.ca/2015/05/07/more-communities-expected-to-join-fight-to-stop-nuclear-waste-repository-near-kincardine A federal review panel’s ‘praising’ endorsement of Ontario’s largest electricity generator and its proposed nuclear waste repository speaks volumes about the state of the regulatory world, says Sarnia Mayor Mike Bradley.
“We expected (the proposal) to be approved with conditions,” he said Thursday. “What we didn’t expect was the glib and glossy language throughout the report praising OPG (Ontario Power Generation).
“One of the diseases that happens in the regulatory world is that the regulator often becomes a captain for the proponents and we see that with rail and other issues.”
In its decision released late Wednesday, the joint review panel found the proposed repository was “not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects” if mitigation measures are implemented.
The deep geological repository is expected to house low-to-intermediate-level radioactive waste near Kincardine. It will be located only a kilometre away from Sarnia’s drinking water source.
Hundreds of Canadian and U.S. communities and environmentalists have been sounding the alarms over the plan, speaking at public hearings and contacting their elected representatives.
“I can’t argue the science,” said Bradley, who is a vocal opponent of the plan. “I’m not a scientist, but what we can argue is that there were no other locations looked at.”
He anticipates more support will come on board with the issue headed to the political sphere.
Environment Minister Leona Aglukkaq and the federal cabinet will decide whether to approve the project within the next 120 days.
“Since (2012), we’ve had over 140 cities from both sides of the border, including Chicago, join the opposition and now I expect this is grow in these coming months,” Bradley said.
A spokesperson with the lobby group Stop the Great Lakes Nuclear Dump described the issue as an “intergenerational, non-partisan issue that affects millions of Canadians and Americans.”
“It is a decision that will affect the Great Lakes for the next 100,000 years,” Beverly Fernandez told The London Free Press. “The last place to bury and abandon radioactive nuclear waste is beside the largest supply of fresh water on the planet.”
But OPG official Jerry Keto told the newspaper Fernandez should “give some relevance and credit to the science behind this.”
“We’re very pleased with the results,” he said of the panel recommendation. “We’re very happy that we have the endorsement.” – With files from The London Free Press firstname.lastname@example.org
ANTINUCLEAR RESISTANCE IN PYHÄJOKI, FINLAND – JOIN THE STRUGGLE!
2.5.2015 HYOKYAALTO The Fennovoima Energy Company is starting to construct a nuclear power plant in Pyhäjoki, a nice, quiet and small municipality in the northwest of Finland. An action camp has been started in the area to stop the project.
During the second half of April, Fennovoima cut 95 hectares of very special coastal forest at the construction site. They didn’t wait for a month for the legal permission to clearcut the landscape. Instead, Fennovoima started destroying the forest on Wednesday, the 15 of April. The forest was a home for several rare birds and other species. Nests of endangered white-backed woodpeckers (Dendrocopos leucotos) were destroyed, a very rare white-tailed eagle got disturbed as dozens of machines demolished its neighborhood.
The operation was carried out by the Waste Management Company Lassila & Tikanoja. The fast start of the cutting was a shock for many people and organizations. The local nature conservation association, the bird protection association and the antinuclear organization Pro Hanhikivi that have been opposing Fennovoima complained and demanded to stop the cutting of the forest immediately. The nesting season of the birds had started already. Many antinuclear people resigned their waste management contract with Lassila & Tikanoja immediately.
In Helsinki 5 people from the Hyökyaalto Eco Action Group took necessary action and entered the headquarters of Lassila & Tikanoja, in order to distribute flyers to the workers in their offices and they refused to leave the building before the cuttings would be stopped. Three people were carried out by police and arrested. They were released on the same day.
We, the Hyökyaalto Eco Action Group, had already planned to start a camp at the forest area, but now we had to hurry. …….
n the camp all kind of little disturbing of the work process became a daily routine. The only road to the cabins goes through the clean cut area and is used by the cutting workers, so people who used the road slowed down the disturbing of the environment whenever there was a log truck or security car on the road. Soon the security company forgot that the road is a public road and started stopping cars from getting to the shore area where the cottages are and accused us as well as the locals for trespassing in the area. Fennovoima’s illegal attempts to try to occupy the cape, while it was still privately owned and public accessible land, raised even more anger amongst the residents.
On Saturday the next bigger blockade was carried out by the activists. ……..
In the last few days there has been more and more critical news about Fennovoima and their actions. There are only two months left until the deadline on June 2015, when Fennovoima needs to have 60% Finnish ownership according the government officials, and it´s still lacking investors. The Finnish state partly owns a company named Fortum and they are negotiating about Russian involvement in hydropower and are about to buy 15% of Fennovoima. If that wouldn´t happen, Fennovoima would be in deep problems. They would probably not be able to cut themselves off of the construction contracts before 1th of July when their decision in principle (permission from the government and parliament) will expire and they would need to start the whole political process again.
Many people wonder if any reasonable company would be willing to jump into the mess Fennovoima has created, or still consider if they want to confirm the old contracts……….
. This spring and summer will be a period of active resistance for us, and we don’t intend to leave the area after the summer period either. Now is the best moment to make the greedy nuclear power project fall. Still, we need help!! Join the resistance!
Right now, we have been more than successful in our fight against Fennovoima. We have supporters and several different resources to continue our resistance. We have found a vast majority of people positively supporting us through social media, email, phone, and the local supporters have been generous in providing us with clean drinking water, washing facilities and shelter.
And yet, nevertheless, more people are needed here, in Pyhäjoki. ……..
The final expropriation date has been set by Fennovoima to the end of May. This is the most important time to gather at the cape of Hanhikivi, the most beautiful place of nature that Finland has to offer for nature lovers, families and those who love to see rare species of animals in their natural environment.
Check http://hyokyaalto.net – People Power Against Nuclear Power Action Camp – for camp info and directions for getting to Pyhäjoki.
Call: +358 466 28 67 68 http://hyokyaalto.net/2015/05/02/antinuclear-resistance-in-pyhajoki-finland-join-the-struggle/
Anti-nuclear demonstration marks anniversary of Chernobyl disaster http://www.todayszaman.com/national_anti-nuclear-demonstration-marks-anniversary-of-chernobyl-disaster_379011.html The Sinop Anti-Nuclear Platform (Sinop NKP) held a demonstration on Saturday in Sinop province in order to mark the 29th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in Ukraine and to raise their voices against the Turkish government’s plans to construct nuclear power plants in Sinop and the Akkuyu district of Mersin province.
Several nongovernmental organizations, local residents of Sinop and members of left-wing parties from all over Turkey were among the demonstration participants. According to the Sözcü newspaper, there was a total about 10,000 protesters.
The protesters said the Chernobyl disaster was a lesson that the ruling Justice and Development Party (AK Party) should keep in mind before resorting to nuclear power plants to address the country’s energy shortage.
On April 26, 1986 an explosion and fire at the Chernobyl plant released a large quantity of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere that spread over an extensive area, including large parts of the western Soviet Union and Europe, in one of the worst accidents in history in terms of cost and casualties.
“Developed countries including Germany, Austria and Sweden decided to close down their nuclear plants after this disaster and Germany‘s energy requirements are two-and-a-half times larger than Turkey’s. The US, the country that has the most nuclear power plants, is not building any new ones. When the aforementioned countries are using more and more alternative energy sources like solar and wind power, there is no point for Turkey to venture into contracting to build a nuclear power plant,” said Chamber of Electrical Engineers (EMO) Secretary General Hüseyin Önder.
Following this demonstration, the Anti-Nuclear Platform (NKP) issued a written statement noting that Sinop is known for being the happiest city in Turkey and that a nuclear power plant would damage the city’s landscape and its image of being a peaceful city.
The platform also stressed that the AK party is trying to convince the people of Sinop to support the project by promising that the power plant would provide thousands of job opportunities for residents, but the statement contended that only around 300 people will able to work there and that they will mostly be workers from the outside of the city.
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